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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 11 3 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 8 0 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 6 0 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 6 0 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 5 1 Browse Search
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.) 4 0 Browse Search
Adam Badeau, Grant in peace: from Appomattox to Mount McGregor, a personal memoir 4 0 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 2 3 1 Browse Search
The Daily Dispatch: November 29, 1861., [Electronic resource] 2 0 Browse Search
Laura E. Richards, Maud Howe, Florence Howe Hall, Julia Ward Howe, 1819-1910, in two volumes, with portraits and other illustrations: volume 1 2 0 Browse Search
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Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 3: strategy. (search)
he gorge of the Mouse-trap in which the French army found itself engaged. There then was the pivot of the defense; but was Schaffhausen to be left uncovered how were Rheineck and the St. Gothard to be abandoned, how open Valais and the access to Berne, without giving up all Helvetia to the coalition? And if it were wished to cover all even by simple brigades, where would be the army when it should be required to deliver a decisive battle to any hostile mass which might present itself? To conrter than that of the Rhine, but which left him yet exposed, upon an immense line, to the blows which the Austrians might deliver him. And if, instead of pushing Bellegarde upon Lombardy by the Valteline, the Aulic Council had made him march upon Berne, or unite with the Arch-Duke, all would have been over with Massena. Those events seem then to prove that, if countries with high mountains are favorable to a tactical defense, it is not the same for a strategical defense, which, obliged to be d
Chapter 2: deeds of valor When gallant Burnside made dash upon new Berne Federal barracks at New Berne, North Carolina, 1862 Kearny at Seven Pines Stedman's stirring poem was suggested by a newspaper account of the ringing retort made by General Kearny to a colonel. The military historian, John C. Ropes, writing of the battle at Chantilly, September 1, 1862, says: the gallant Kearny also was killed, while reconnoitering in front of his troops; a loss which was very deeply felt. He was a man who was made for the profession of arms. In the field he was always ready, always skilful, always brave, always untiring, always hopeful, and always vigilant and alert. So that soldierly legend is still on its journey,— That story of Kearny who knew not to yield! 'Twas the day when with Jameson, fierce Berry, and Birney, Against twenty thousand he rallied the field. Where the red volleys poured, where the clamor rose highest, Where the dead lay in clumps through the dwarf o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Delagoa Bay, (search)
al privileges along the shore. By the aid of British capital the road was completed in November, 1887, to what the Portuguese engineers certified was the border of the Transvaal. In 1889 the Portuguese government served notice on Colonel McMurdo that the real frontier was 6 miles further inland, and that if the road was not built to that point within four months it would be seized by Portugal. Before McMurdo's side of the controversy could be heard, Portugal confiscated the entire property (June, 1889). The United States, in behalf of the McMurdo interests, united with England to compel Portugal to make proper reparation, and Portugal consented to have the dispute settled by arbitration. The tribunal was organized in Berne, Switzerland, in 1890, but it was not till March 29, 1900, that a conclusion was reached. The total award to the claimants was $3,202,800, with interest from 1889, and by a compromise the heirs of Colonel McMurdo were awarded $500,000 towards the close of 1900.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Diplomatic service. (search)
nister Plenipotentiary, Lisbon. Russia. Charlemagne Tower, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, St. Petersburg. Siam. Hamilton King, Minister Resident and Consul-General, Bangkok. Spain. Bellamy Storer, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Madrid. Sweden and Norway. William W. Thomas, Jr., Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Stockholm. Switzerland. John G. A. Leishman, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Berne. Turkey. Oscar S. Straus, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Constantinople. Venezuela. Francis B. Loomis, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Caracas. The following is a table of the chiefs of the foreign embassies and legations in the United States on Jan. 1, 1901: Argentine republic. Dr. Eduardo Wilde, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Austria-Hungary. Mr. Ladislaus Hengelmuller von Hengervar, Envoy Extraordinary an
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Federal Union, the John Fiske (search)
these free peoples, in their efforts towards national unity, were led to frame federal unions, and one of these political achievements is, from the stand-point of universal history, of very great significance. The old League of High Germany, which earned immortal renown at Morgarten and Sempach, consisted of German-speaking cantons only. But in the fifteenth century the League won by force of arms a small bit of Italian territory about Lake Lugano, and in the sixteenth the powerful city of Bern annexed the Burgundian bishopric of Lausanne and rescued the free city of Geneva from the clutches of the Duke of Savoy. Other Burgundian possessions of Savoy were seized by the canton of Freiburg; and after awhile all these subjects and allies were admitted on equal terms into the confederation. The result is that modern Switzerland is made up of what might seem to be most discordant and unmanageable elements. Four languages— German, French, Italian, and Rhaetian— are spoken within the l
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), International law, (search)
subjects or others; third, that whatever force the laws of one country have in another depends solely on the municipal laws of the latter. There have been numerous congresses of international law experts for the purpose of simplifying and making more definite the obligations which one country owes to another, and in these congresses the United States has occupied a conspicuous place. The Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations held its first session in Brussels, Oct. 10, 1873, and subsequent ones were held in Geneva, The Hague, Bremen, Antwerp, Frankfort, London, Berne, Cologne, Turin, and Milan. An Institute of International Law was organized in Ghent in 1873, and has since held numerous sessions in various cities of Europe, The most conspicuous action of the nations concerning the abolition of international hostilities was taken in the Peace Conference at The Hague, in 1899, to which the United States was also a party. See codes; field, David Dudley.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Savings-banks. (search)
Savings-banks. The first regular institution of this kind was established at Hamburg in 1778. The next was at Berne, Switzerland, in 1787. The oldest savingsbank in the world, still in existence, was founded at Zurich, Switzerland, in 1803. The first savings-bank in the United States was established in Philadelphia in 1816, and in 1880 still existed as a flourishing institution. It was called the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society. The second savings-bank was established in Boston the same year, and the third in New York in 1819. These banks are regulated by State laws, and the average rate of interest paid by them is 3 per cent. For statistics of the mutual and stock savings-banks in the United States, see Banks, savings.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Smith, John Eugene 1816-1897 (search)
Smith, John Eugene 1816-1897 Military officer; born in Berne, Switzerland, Aug. 3, 1816; removed to Philadelphia, where he was educated; then settled in Illinois; was aide-de-camp to Governor Yates when the Civil War began; became colonel of the 45th Illinois Volunteers in July, 1861, and served well at Forts Henry and Donelson, and in the battles of Shiloh and Corinth. In November he was made brigadier-general of volunteers; in 1862 he commanded a division in the 16th Army Corps, and was in all the operations against Vicksburg in 1863. He was afterwards in the battles near Chattanooga, and in 1864 was in the Atlanta campaign under Sherman, also in his subsequent campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas to the surrender of Johnston. He was brevetted major-general, in 1867, and retired in 1881. He died in Chicago, Ill.. Jan. 29, 1897.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Treaties. (search)
of Commerce and amityMadridAugust, 1900 Sweden: Treaty of Amity and commerceParisApril 3, 1783 Treaty of Friendship and commerceStockholmSept. 4, 1816 Sweden and Norway: Treaty of Navigation, commerce, consular powersStockholmJuly 4, 1827 Convention of ExtraditionWashingtonMar. 21, 1860 Convention of NaturalizationStockholmMay 26, 1869 Swiss Confederation: Convention of Abolishing droit d'atubaine and taxes on emigrationWashingtonMay 18, 1847 Convention of Friendship, commerce, etc.BerneNov. 25, 1850 Treaty of International Red CrossGenevaMar. 1, 1882 Texas: Convention of IndemnityHoustonApril 11, 1838 Convention of BoundaryWashingtonApril 25, 1838 Tonga: Treaty of Amity, commerce, navigationU. S. Steamer MohicanOct. 2, 1886 Tripoli: Treaty of Peace and friendshipTripoliNov. 4, 1796 Treaty of Peace and amityTripoliJune 4, 1805 Tunis: Treaty of Peace and friendshipTunisMay 26, 1799 Two Sicilies: Convention of Regarding depredation of MuratNaplesOct. 14, 1832 Tre
action may be inverted, the larger wheel driving the smaller instead of being driven by it. Planimeter. Pla-nim′e-ter. An instrument for ascertaining the contents of irregular plane figures. More than thirty years ago, Oppikoffer, of Berne, invented an instrument of this description, which seemed to fulfill all the requirements of the case; but its cost and the practical difficulties attending its use prevented its general adoption. More recently, Amsler-Laffon of Schoffhausen dndary colors at the same time, one being reflected in the direction i, and the other thrown upon the screen at g. Goddard's oxyhydrogen polariscope. Polar-is-tro-bom′e-ter. The title given to an instrument devised by Professor Wilde of Berne for investigating the relations of various liquids to polarized light. Po-lar′i-ty. The property of attraction or repulsion, or of taking certain directions. Po′lar-izer. The lower prism. The one beneath the stage of the microscope
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