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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 14: field-engineering.—Field Fortifications.—Military Communications.—Military Bridges.—Sapping, Mining, and the attack and defence of a fortified place (search)
les at each shore, and then fastened as before. Short vertical ropes attach the main supports to these side ropes, in order thai they may sustain a part of the weight passing over the bridge. Constructions of this character are fully described in Douglas's Essay on Military Bridges. For example, see the passage of the Po, near Casal, in 1515, by the Swiss; the bridge thrown over the Clain by Admiral Coligni, at the siege of Poitiers, in 1569; the operations of the Prince of Orange against Ghent and Bruges, in 1631. ; the passage of the Tagus, at Alcantara, in. 1810, by the English; the bridge constructed across the Zezere, by the French, in 1810; the bridge thrown across the Scarpe, near Douai, in 1820; the experiments made at Fere in 1823, &c. The passage of a river in the presence of an enemy, whether acting offensively or in retreat, is an operation of great delicacy and danger. In either case the army is called upon to show the coolest and most determined courage, for its s
delicate a matter, the personal character and temper of the agent was the most important element. Now a commission is always a stiff, official instrument; it wants the flexibility and the adaptability necessary for negotiation, and excludes that personal confidence, that, once obtained, almost insures success. Besides, all our experience was against it. We tried it during the Revolution; we tried it after the Revolution, in our difficulties with France; we tried it in 1813, at the peace of Ghent, and always with the same result — dissatisfaction at home, embarrassment in the negotiation, and ill-feeling among the commissioners. So far, we have not had these results, but simply because we have had no results at all. The commissioners might here have been recalled. As to what has been done, we have no information; but the Government has recently taken a very grave step, from which it may be inferred, according to one's temperament, either that our three commissioners have had no suc
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Adams, John Quincy, 1767- (search)
He took a seat in the Senate of Massachusetts in 1802, and he occupied one in that of the United States from 1803 until 1808. when disagreeing with the legislature of Massachusetts on the embargo question, he resigned. From 1806 to 1809 he was Professor of Rhetoric in Harvard College. In the latter year he was appointed by President Madison minister to Russia; and in 1814, while serving in that office, he was chosen one of the United States commissioners to negotiate a treaty of peace at Ghent. After that, he and Henry Clay and Albert Gallatin negotiated a commercial treaty with Great Britain, which was signed July 13, 1815. Mr. Adams remained in London as minister until 1817, when he was recalled to take the office of Secretary of State. This was at the beginning of what was popularly known as the era of good feeling. the settlement of questions growing out of the war with Great Britain (1812-15) having freed the government from foreign political embarrassments and enabled it
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bayard, James Ashton, 1767- (search)
ederal party. In 1804 he was elected to the United States Senate, in which he distinguished himself in conducting the impeachment of Senator Blount. He was chiefly instrumental in securing the election of Jefferson over Burr in 1800; and made, in the House of Representatives, in 1802, a powerful defence of the existing judiciary system, which was soon overthrown. He was in the Senate when war was declared against Great Britain in 1812. In May, 1813, he left the United States on a mission to St. Petersburg, to treat for peace with Great James Ashton Bayard. Britain under Russian mediation. The mission was fruitless. In January, 1814, he went to Holland, and thence to England. At Ghent, during that year, he, with J. Q. Adams, Clay, Gallatin, and Russell, negotiated a treaty of peace with England. He was preparing to go to England as a commissioner under the treaty, when an alarming illness seized him, and He returned home early in 1815. He died soon after his arrival, Aug. 6.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cheves, Langdon 1776-1857 (search)
an; born in Abbeville District, S. C., Sept. 17, 1776. Admitted to the bar in 1800, he soon became eminent as a lawyer and as a leader in the State legislature, which he entered in 1808. He was attorney-general of the State, and was a member of Congress from 1811 to 1816, zealously supporting all war measures introduced. When, in 1814, Henry Clay was sent to negotiate a treaty of peace with Great Britain, he succeeded the Kentuckian as speaker of the House, which place he held for a year, his casting vote defeating a bill for the rechartering of the United States Bank. The bank was rechartered in 1816; and when in trouble in 1819 Cheves was appointed president of its directors, and by his great energy and keen judgment it was saved from dissolution. He became chief commissioner under the treaty of Ghent for settling some of its provisions. He was a public advocate of disunion as early as the year 1830, but opposed nullification (q. v.). He died in Columbia, S. C., June 25, 1857.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Declaration of Independence, Dutch. (search)
ind his subjects, he sent at the same time Don John, his natural brother, as of his blood, to govern these countries, who under pretence of approving the treaty of Ghent confirming the promise made to the States of driving out the Spaniards, of punishing the authors of the disturbances, of settling the public peace, and of re-establd be easily subdued. Whereupon Don John, notwithstanding his solemn promise and oath, in the presence of all the aforesaid States, to observe the pacification of Ghent, and other articles stipulated between him and the States of all the provinces, on the contrary sought, by all possible promises made to the colonels already at hibly by their own governors. Having also, after the decease of Don John, sufficiently declared by the Baron de Selles that he would not allow the pacification of Ghent, the which Don John had in his majesty's name sworn to maintain, but daily proposing new terms of agreement less advantageous. Notwithstanding these discouragemen
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Ghent, treaty of (search)
Ghent, treaty of The treaty between the United States and Great Britain, which terminated the War of 1812. The American commissioners were John Quincy Adams, Jrn, and William Adams. The American commissioners assembled in the city of Ghent, Belgium, in July, 1814; the British commissioners early in the following month. ThFeb. 17, 1815. While the negotiations were in progress the leading citizens of Ghent took great interest in the matter. Their sympathies were with the Americans, ars when the work was done. On Oct. 27 the Academy of Sciences and Fine Arts at Ghent invited the American commissioners to attend their exercises, when they were al A sumptuous dinner was given, at which the intendant, or chief magistrate, of Ghent offered the following sentiment: Our distinguished guests and fellow-members, ter communications from that point to Lake Superior; and a third to adjust the Ghent. limits from the water-communication between Lakes Huron and Superior to the mo
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), International law, (search)
subjects or others; third, that whatever force the laws of one country have in another depends solely on the municipal laws of the latter. There have been numerous congresses of international law experts for the purpose of simplifying and making more definite the obligations which one country owes to another, and in these congresses the United States has occupied a conspicuous place. The Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations held its first session in Brussels, Oct. 10, 1873, and subsequent ones were held in Geneva, The Hague, Bremen, Antwerp, Frankfort, London, Berne, Cologne, Turin, and Milan. An Institute of International Law was organized in Ghent in 1873, and has since held numerous sessions in various cities of Europe, The most conspicuous action of the nations concerning the abolition of international hostilities was taken in the Peace Conference at The Hague, in 1899, to which the United States was also a party. See codes; field, David Dudley.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Madison, James 1751- (search)
.] Done at the city of Washington, the 19th day of June, 1812, and of the Independence of the United States the thirty-sixth. James Madison. By the President: James Monroe, Secretary of State. Message on peace treaty. Washington, Feb. 18, 1815. To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, I lay before Congress copies of the treaty of peace and amity between the United States and his Britannic Majesty, which was signed by the commissioners of both parties at Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814, and the ratifications of which have been duly exchanged. While performing this act I congratulate you and our constituents upon an event which is highly honorable to the nation, and terminates with peculiar felicity a campaign signalized by the most brilliant successes. The late war, although reluctantly declared by Congress, had become a necessary resort to assert the rights and independence of the nation. It has been waged with a success which is the natural result
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Northeastern boundary, the (search)
Northeastern boundary, the A dispute concerning the exact boundary between the United States and the British possessions on the east, as defined by the treaty of peace in 1783, remained unsettled at the close of President Jackson's administration, in 1837. In conformity with the treaty of Ghent (1814), the question concerning that boundary was, in 1829, submitted to the King of the Netherlands for arbitration. Instead of deciding the question submitted to him, he fixed a new boundary (January, 1837) not contemplated by either party. The American minister at The Hague immediately protested against the decision, but, as it gave territory in dispute to Great Britain, that government accepted the decision. The State of Maine, bordering on the British territory of New Brunswick, protested against the award. Collisions occurred, and the national government began negotiations with Maine with a view to an amicable settlement of the affair. An agent appointed by Maine recommended t
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