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Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 5: of different mixed operations, which participate at the same time of strategy and.of tactics. (search)
they turn the enemy from a march upon the capitol of the State and upon the centre of its power; the configuration of the frontiers, the fortresses which are found there, the greater or less space which an army would find for moving, and re-establishing its direct communications with the centre of the State, are so many considerations which influence the opportuneness of these operations. Spain, amongst others, offers very great advantages for this system. If a French army penetrate by Bayonne, the Spaniards have the choice of basing themselves upon Pampeluna and Saragossa, or upon Leon and the Asturias, which would make it impossible for their adversary to direct himself towards Madrid, leaving his narrow line of operations at the mercy of the Spaniards. The frontier of the Turkish empire upon the Danube, would offer the same advantage for that power, if it knew how to profit by it. France is equally very proper for this kind of war, especially when there does not exist in
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 2: Strategy.—General divisions of the Art.—Rules for planning a Campaign.—Analysis of the military operations of Napoleon (search)
to wash the blot from our national escutcheon. Lines of defence in strategy are either permanent or temporary. The great military frontiers of a state, especially when strengthened by natural and artificial obstacles, such as chains of mountains, rivers, lines of fortresses, &c., are regarded as permanent lines of defence. The Alpine range between France and Piedmont, with its fortified passes; the Rhine, the Oder, and the Elbe, with their strongly-fortified places; the Pyrenees, with Bayonne at one extremity and Perpignon at the other; the triple range of fortresses on the Belgian frontier — are all permanent lines of defence. The St. Lawrence river is a permanent line of defence for Canada; and the line of lake Champlain, the upper St. Lawrence, and the lakes, for the United States. Temporary lines of defence are such as are taken up merely for the campaign. Napoleon's position in Saxony, in 1813; the line of the allies in Belgium, in 1815; the line of the Marne, in 1814,
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 3: Fortifications.Their importance in the defence of States proved by numerous historical examples (search)
ranean frontier has Fort Quarre, Fort St. Marguerite, St. Tropez, Brigancon, the forts of Point Man, of l'ertissac, and of Langoustier, Toulon, St. Nicholas, Castle of If, Marseilles, Tour de Boue, Aigues-Montes, Fort St. Louis, Fort Brescou, Narbonne, Chateau de Salces, Perpignan, Collioure, Fort St. Elme, and Port Vendre. Toulon is the great naval depot for this frontier, and Marseilles the great commercial port. Both are well secured by strong fortifications. The Atlantic frontier has Bayonne; the forts of Royan, Grave. Medoc, Pate, &c., on the Gironde; Rochefort, with the forts of Chapus, Lapin, Aix, Oleron, &c., to cover the roadstead; La Rochelle, with the forts of the Isle of Re; Sables, with the forts of St. Nicholas, and Des Moulines, Isle Dieu, Belle Isle, Fort du Pilier, Mindin, Ville Martin; Quiberon, with Fort Penthievre; L'Orient, with its harbor defences; Fort Cigogne; Brest, with its harbor defences; St. Malo, with Forts Cezembre, La Canchee, L'Anse du Verger, and
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 12: army organization—Engineers.—Their history, duties, and organization,—with a brief discussion, showing their importance as a part of a modern army organization. (search)
while those which were retained by Spain and her allies, contributed in an equal degree to hamper and embarrass his operations. Some of these, like Saragossa and Tarragona, with their broken walls and defective armaments, kept the enemy in check some sixty days each, and did much to weaken the French power in the Peninsula. Temporary or field-fortifications also had an important influence here. The lines of Torres-Vedras, the field-works of Ronda, the intrenched camps of the Pyrenees, Bayonne, Toulouse, &c., are examples under this head. In fact, field-works played a most important part in all of Napoleon's wars. We might mention the redoubt of Montenotte, the intrenchments at Milesimo, the batteries of Lobau, the field-defences of Hougomont, La Haye-Sainte, and Papelotte at Waterloo, and numerous other cases equally striking. Just before the battle of Waterloo, Wellington employed some eighteen. thousand peasants and two thousand horses, under the direction of British office
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Embargo acts. (search)
t accomplished nothing, or worse than nothing. It aroused against the United States whatever spirit of honor and pride existed in both nations. Opposition to the measure, in and out of Congress, was violent and incessant, and on March 1, 1809, it was repealed. At the same time Congress passed a law forbidding all commercial intercourse with France and England until the Orders in Council and the decrees should be repealed. Bonaparte's response to the Embargo Act of 1807 was issued from Bayonne, April 17, 1808. He was there to dethrone his Spanish ally to make place for one of his own family. His decree authorized the seizure and confiscation of all American vessels in France, or which might arrive in France. It was craftily answered, when Armstrong remonstrated, that, as no American vessels could be lawfully abroad after the passage of the Embargo Act, those pretending to be such must be British vessels in disguise. Feeling the pressure of the opposition to the embargo at h
, and also by the radiating struts which are in pairs, notched out so as to clip the rib between them. Emy's arched-beam roof. The principals, wall-posts, and arched rib form two triangles, firmly braced together, and exert no thurst on the walls; the weight of the roof, being thrown on the walls at the feet of the ribs, and not at the pole plate, permits the upper portion of the walls to be comparatively light. The Colonel erected a roof of this description in 1825 at Marac, near Bayonne. The principle has been extensively adopted in wooden bridges in the United States and in Europe. See wooden bridge. The illustration opposite represents the roof of the Union Passenger Depot of the New York and Harlem Railway, projected by Commodore Vanderbilt, and constructed from the designs of J. C. Buckhout, C. E. The roof is 652 feet long and 199 feet 2 inches between walls. It is supported upon 32 semicircular trusses, which are spaced 20 feet 4 inches between centers, exten
pboard. 4. (Ship.) That part on each side between decks of a man-of-war which lies forward of the butts. 5. (Bridging.) The portion between two piers. 6. (Mining.) The space between two frames in a gallery. 7. (Hydraulic Engineering.) a. The head of a lock. b. A compartment containing water for a wheel, as a fore-bay. Bay-bolt. One with a barbed shank. Bay′o-net. A piercing weapon, fixable on the muzzle-end of a fire-arm. They were originally made at Bayonne, in France, in the latter half of the seventeenth century, and used by that nation in the Netherlands in 1647. The weapon was introduced into the English army in 1672, and used at Killiecrankie, in Perthshire, where the forces of William of Orange, commanded by Mackay, were defeated by those of James II., under the command of Graham, of Claverhouse, 1689; and also at the battle of Marsaglia, 1693, with great success against the enemy, unprepared for the encounter with so formidable a novelty.
noise, gently as the operations of nature, makes and unmakes laws. Let this opinion be felt in its Christian might, and the Fugitive-Slave Bill will become everywhere upon our soil a dead-letter. No lawyer will aid it by counsel: no citizen will become its agent. It will die of inanition, like a spider beneath an exhausted receiver. Oh! it were well the tidings should spread throughout the land, that here in Massachusetts this accursed bill has found no servants. Sire, I have found in Bayonne honest citizens and brave soldiers only, but not one executioner, was the reply of the governor of that place to the royal mandate of Charles IX. of France, ordering the massacre of St. Bartholomew. But it rests with you, my fellow-citizens, by your works and your words and your example, by your calm determinations and your devoted lives, to do this work. From a humane, just, and religious people shall spring up a public opinion, to keep perpetual guard over the liberties of all within
William Hepworth Dixon, White Conquest: Volume 2, Chapter 5: the State House. (search)
fter the royal founder of Louisiana, the Hotel St. Louis. Rue Royale and Rue St. Louis cut and cross the old French quarter. This side of New Orleans is quaint with balconies, green shutters, high gateways, and inner yards, tricked out with squirts of water and pots of oleander, doing duty for fountains and gardens; a decrepit and deserted corner of the town, from which the tides of life and trade have long since ebbed away. The stench reminds you of Dieppe, the dominoes and billiards of Bayonne. Yet this French quarter used to be a fashionable lounge, where ladies flirted, duellists fought, and senators ruled. The Rue St. Louis was an afternoon drive for belles and beaux, where sparkling Creoles ruined their admirers with a smile; but since that period fashions have changed, and everyone now lodges at the Hotel St. Charles. The once fashionable hotel has sunk into a State capital; one wing of the old hostelry being turned into an executive office, and a deserted dining-room in
C. Edwards Lester, Life and public services of Charles Sumner: Born Jan. 6, 1811. Died March 11, 1874., Section Fourth: orations and political speeches. (search)
or noise, gently as the operations of nature, makes and unmakes laws. Let this opinion be felt in its Christian might, and the Fugitive Slave Bill will become everywhere upon our soil a dead letter. No lawyer will aid it by counsel; no citizen will become its agent; it will die of inanition—like a spider beneath an exhausted receiver. Oh! it were well the tidings should spread throughout the land, that here in Massachusetts this accursed Bill has found no servants. Sire, I have found in Bayonne honest citizens and brave soldiers only; but not one executioner, was the reply of the governor of that place, to the royal mandate from Charles IX. of France, ordering the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. But it rests with you, my fellow-citizens, by your words and your example, by your calm determinations, and your devoted lives, to do this work. From a humane, just, and religious people shall spring a Public Opinion, to keep perpetual guard over the liberties of all within our borders.
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