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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 26 4 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 4 0 Browse Search
James Russell Lowell, Among my books 2 0 Browse Search
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air as a means of transmitting power was that ingenious Frenchman, Dr. Papin of Blois, about A. D. 1700. We shall have occasion to refer to him in the History of the means. About one hundered years after the experiment of the philosopher of Blois, a Welsh engineer used the power derived from a heavy fall of water to work a bd air, so far as our present information extends, was that by Dr. Papin, of Blois, France, about 1695. His experiments were particularly directed to utilizing the pstons is alternate. At-mos-pher′ic En′gine. Invented by Dr. Papin, of Blois, France, in 1695; improved by Newcomen, 1705, and Watt, 1769. It was the first goo means of atmospheric pressure seems to have originated with Dr. Papin, of Blois, in France, about the end of the seventeenth century. This extremely versatile man woctor's invention. The experiments actually entered upon by the philosopher of Blois, in the matter of compressed air, were principally directed to the transmission
nce the weight of a valve, and enable it to be lifted more readily. The electric balance is a form of electrometer. The hygrometric balance is a form of hygrometer, in which the absorption of moisture destroys the equipoise of a balanced beam. The hydrostatic balance is a modification of the ordinary balance, for the purpose of obtaining specific gravities. The steam-balance is the ordinary safety-valve which has a weighted lever. It was invented by the illustrious Dr. Papin, of Blois. The torsion-balance is a delicate electrometer, in which a horizontal bar is suspended from a wire which is twisted by the magnetic attraction or repulsion. The specific-gravity balance was due to the discovery of Archimedes. The Book of the balance of wisdom, by AlKhazini, of the twelfth century, is a treatise on the specific-gravity balance, which he credits to Archimedes, narrating the story of Hiero and the Syracusan goldsmith; and which, as he says, is founded upon geometrical
linder E, where it acts in the manner usual with the double-acting steam-engine, and exhausts into the atmosphere. F is the supply aperture through which the reservoir is charged, and G the safety-valve. The pistonrod, cross-head, and pitman connect in the usual way with the crank and driving-shaft. Parsey's compressed-air engine. The project has lately been revived for impelling street-cars. Under Air as a means of transmitting power, has been noticed the attempt of Dr. Papin of Blois to run a pumping-engine by compressed air conducted by pipes from a condensing engine situated at the distance of a mile and driven by a fall of water. For some reason, friction and leakage probably, the doctor failed. For the application of compressed air as a water elevator, see Air as water elevator, compressed. In the city of New York, in 1858 or 1859, Captain Ericsson arranged a power to run sewing-machines for a clothing firm in that city. A caloric engine in the cellar compres
s having a screw for quick motion and a compound lever and suspended weight for continuous pressure. The nut of the screw is boxed in the short lever, which is of the second class. The long lever is of the same class. Duplex lever-punch. Le′ver-punch. A punch operated by the rolling motion of two cam-faced levers which are approached by a screw. Le′ver-valve. A safety-valve kept in its seat by the pressure of a lever with an adjustable weight. The invention of Dr. Papin of Blois. In locomotives a spring is used at the end of the lever instead of a weight; the pressure being regulated by a screw and indicated on a brass plate. Under ordinary circumstances the valve-lever has a number of weights, which are added as occasion requires, or the weight is shifted in or out on the lever. See safety-valve. Lev-i-ga′tion. A process of rubbing a moist material between two hard surfaces, as in grinding pigments and printer's ink. Trituration is distinguishe<
th water, rests upon the shelf, and the beak of the retort extends beneath the shelf, so that the gas passing off from the retort passes up into the jar and displaces the water therein. Pneu-mat′ic tube. To the fertile brain of Dr. Papin of Blois, who lived about the end of the seventeenth century, we are indebted for the first suggestion of conveying parcels in a tube by means of compressed air. This distinguished Frenchman was the first to adopt a piston in the cylinder of a steam-enginld, a prisoner in the Inquisition, for thinking in astronomy otherwise than the Franciscan and Dominican licensers thought. The next we hear of the piston is in the air-pump of Otto Guericke of Magdeburg, and in the steamengine of Dr. Papin of Blois. If we knew better what the philosophers of Alexandria and Cordova had been doing in the mean time, we should probably find that the piston-pump was not entirely laid away for fifteen or sixteen centuries. Dr. Papin was the first, so far as w
eine (by Figuier). See list under steam. See also propeller, pages 1808, 1809. Fig. 5605 shows a view of Papin's boat as it existed in the imagination of M. Figuier. It is next to impossible to exaggerate the merits of M Denys Papin of Blois, but it will not be safe to warrant the illustration given by his lively countryman. The device of using wheels instead of oars, the propelling power being men or animals, was employed by the Egyptians and Romans in their war-galleys. When the aced between the jib and the tension-rods, which carry the chain-rollers. See also overhead-crane; traveling-crane. Steam-cyl′in-der. (Steam-engine.) The chamber within which the piston reciprocates. The invention of Dr. Papin, of Blois, in France. The first steam-engine with reciprocating motion. The waterraising devices of Worcester and Savary, like the toys of Baptista Porta, Leonardo da Vinci, and De Caus, were steam-pressure apparatus, approximating to pumps, not engines. The
arys who waited upon her. Yestreen the Queen had four Maries, The night she'll hae but three; There was Marie Seaton, and Marie Beaton, And Marie Carmichael, and me. The watch is of silver, in the form of a skull, and was made by Moyse of Blois. The watch is opened by placing the skull in the palm of the hand and lifting the hinged lower jaw. The works occupy the place of the brains, the dial occupying about the position of the palate and to the rear of it. The dial is of silver, fiior window. Triangular staircases are found in ancient buildings. Louis Cornaro invented winding-stairs without newel, and Barbaro, a Venetian, the regular geometrical stairs. Winding-engine. Francis I., at the Castle of Chambre, near Blois, had four staircases to four several rooms, going one over the other, but so that persons to and from each traveled their own stairs, though in sight of each other. The northwest tower of Pontefract Church, England, has two circular flights of
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3, Chapter 41: search for health.—journey to Europe.—continued disability.—1857-1858. (search)
ere Bolingbroke lived in his exile; visited the old streets of Orleans, the Museum, and the Rue Pothier, where was the house in which this great jurist lived; also saw his monument at the cathedral. At the end of the afternoon went on by rail to Blois, where in the evening I rambled about old streets as munch as my strength would permit; heard the close of a sermon in a well-packed church opposite the chateau, and also attended a concert. May 25. Early in the morning was waked by the light streaming into my window; as I dressed, looked out upon the Loire. At seven o'clock started in an open carriage to visit Chambord, about eleven miles distant, where after visiting the castle I breakfasted; returned to Blois; visited the interesting castle there, and other objects, and then took the railroad for Amboise, where I visited the castle; then in an open carriage drove to Chenonceaux, perhaps the most beautiful castle of France; returned to Amboise for dinner; then by railroad to Tour
James Russell Lowell, Among my books, Wordsworth. (search)
ent in a foot journey upon the Continent (1790). In January, 1791, he took his degree of B. A., and left Cambridge. During the summer of this year he visited Wales, and, after declining to enter upon holy orders under the plea that he was not of age for ordination, went over to France in November, and remained during the winter at Orleans. Here he became intimate with the republican General Beaupuis, with whose hopes and aspirations he ardently sympathized. In the spring of 1792 he was at Blois, and returned thence to Orleans, which he finally quitted in October for Paris. He remained here as long as he could with safety, and at the close of the year went back to England, thus, perhaps, escaping the fate which soon after overtook his friends the Brissotins. As hitherto the life of Wordsworth may be called a fortunate one, not less so in the training and expansion of his faculties was this period of his stay in France. Born and reared in a country where the homely and familiar