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or ages, and is now actually helping forward. Next we recognize the map of Cosmas of Alexandria, known as Indico-plrustes. His map was made about A. D. 547, and was regarded as conclusive by the Fathers of the Church. So said the doctors of Salamanca, in 1486, to Columbus, who proposed to reach the east by sailing to the west. The geographer of the Church represented the earth as a plane twice as long as it was broad, embracing the Mediterranean and indented by the Red Sea, the Persian Gulo come down farther in order of time, we notice the representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, as depicted on the terrestrial globe of Martin Behaim, 1492. This may be taken as representing the state of geographic knowledge out of Salamanca and the cloisters. Africa had been circummavigated by Vasco da Gama; Asia is driven over to the eastward as far as Marco Polo is deemed to have gone in his months of weary travel. So large a proportion of the circumference of the earth was he