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Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 3: strategy. (search)
situated on the sea shore, would procure the army easy supplies, and places of refuge, with flanks secure from insult. This blindness was pushed to such a degree, that General Pfuhl sustained, in 1812, that the natural base of the Russians was at Riga, a strategical blasphemy, which was also uttered in my presence, by one of the most renowned of the French generals. Fascinated by similar ideas, Colonel Carion-Nizas, dared even to publish, that in 1813, Napoleon ought to have placed half of h Russian armies in basing himself in 1807, upon Konigsberg, because of the facility which that city gave for supplying himself. If the Russian army, instead of concentrating, in 1812, upon Smolensk, had chosen to support itself upon Dunabourg and Riga, it would have run the risk of being thrown back upon the sea, cut off from all its bases of power, and annihilated. With regard to the relations which exist between sieges and the operations of active armies, they are of two kinds. If the a
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 13: permanent fortifications.—Historical Notice of the progress of this Art.—Description of the several parts of a Fortress, and the various Methods of fortifying a position (search)
he country. Their works, however, throw up in much haste, were in many respects defective, although well adapted to the exigencies of the time. Freytag, their principal engineer, wrote in 1630. Some of his improvements were introduced into France by Pagan. He was preceded by Marolois, (a cotemporary of Pagan,) who published in 1613. In Germany, Rimpler, a Saxon, wrote on fortification in 1671. He was a man of great experience, having served at the sieges of Candia, Phillipsburg, Bonn, Riga, Bremen, Dansburg, Bommeln, &c. He fell at the siege of Vienna in 1683. His writings are said to contain the groundwork of Montalembert's system. In Italy, after the time of Tartaglia, Marchi, Campi, &c., we find no great improvement in this art. Several Italians, however, distinguished themselves as engineers under the Spaniards. The fortifications of Badajos are a good example of the state of the art in Italy and Spain at that epoch. The citadel of Antwerp, built by two Italian engine
he bloom, — a certain powdery appearance which marks the surface of well-tanned leather. Stretch′ing-ma-chine′. A machine for stretching textile fabrics so as to lay their warp and woof yarns in truly parallel positions. An ingenious and effective machine for this purpose, patented by Morand of Manchester, is described in Newton's London journal of Arts and science for December, 1835. See also Tentering-machine. Striae-de-tect′or. An instrument invented by Professor Topler of Riga for detecting the streaks or striae in glass-disks, caused by irregularities of density. These are sometimes of sufficient magnitude to be visible on simple inspection, but when not so, they render the glass unfit for optical purposes. The instrument consists of a lamp before which is placed an opaque disk having apertures of various dimensions, enabling the observer to vary the size of the radiant at pleasure. The light is thrown on a large lens of short focus, and passes through the g
a handle, a screw cut on the axis causing it at the same time to travel endwise. The style barely touches the blackened surface. The fork is made to vibrate, and the cylinder turned, the style making a mark whose waves correspond to the number of vibrations, and the number of these by count in a second of time is the number of vibrations of the fork. By plunging the paper in ether, the trace may be fixed and the number counted at leisure. 2. An instrument invented by Mr. Wesselhoft of Riga, designed to enable an observer to make direct observation of the motion of a vibrating object. It is founded on the principle of the phenakistoscope or the zootrope, and consists of a rapidly rotating disk having equidistant sight-holes. The vibrating object is viewed through these by means of a telescope, and, owing to the persistency of vision, appears constantly in view, though its change of position, as it is seen successively through each aperture of the revolving disk, is distinctl
the condition of adscripts to the glebe. It went better with the mechanic arts and with trade. In the troubled centuries when there was no safety for merchants and artisans but in their own courage and union, free cities rose up along the Rhine and the Danube in such numbers that the hum of business could be heard from the one to the other. On the sea free towns leagued together from Flanders to the Gulf of Finland,—renewing Dantzic; carrying colonies to Elbing, Konigsberg, and Memel, to Riga and Reval; stretching into the interior so as to include Gottingen, Erfurt, and Magdeburg, Breslau, and Cracow; having marts alike in London and Novgorod; shaping their constitutions after the great house of merchants of Lubeck, till the consolidated union of nearly eighty cities became the first mari- Chap. II.} time power in the commercial world. As in England, Simon de Montfort created a place for the representation of the boroughs in parliament, so free imperial cities had benches in
account of the principal disasters is not complete. The work of incendiaries commenced at the end of April, in the Government of Kalonea, by the destruction of fifty-four houses; next at Ok Hanska, two hundred and four houses were burnt; at Seabrook, four-fifths of the town were destroyed; at Mozir, one-half of the houses; at Mologa, more than two hundred, and at the fair of Nijui- Noogorod, fifteen hundred booths and one hundred and forty-eight houses; at Patrofsk, there were six fires in June, and entire quarters of the town were consumed. The powder magazine of Nazan and that of Okhta, near Petersburg, were blown up. At Riga, two fires occurred; the same at Tunlen, where the finest quarters of the town were consumed. At Orenburg, six hundred houses were burnt, and Baki is only a heap of ruins. Four conflagrations took place at St. Petersburg; six at Simbirsk, a town which, as well as Yaroslavi, are now in ruins. Previous to April, two imperial cannon foundries were destroyed.