Browsing named entities in George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10. You can also browse the collection for Madrid (Spain) or search for Madrid (Spain) in all documents.

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aterials in their completeness are unique. Of the letters of the American commissioners, nearly all are in print; yet I have been able to make gleanings from unpublished papers of them all, and have full reports of their conversations with the British representatives. On the French side, I have papers drawn up for the guidance of the negotiation; the reports of Rayneval from England to Vergennes, repeated in the accounts addressed by Vergennes himself to Montmorin, the French ambassador at Madrid, and to Luzerne, the French minister at Philadelphia. On the British side, I have the official letters of Shelburne and Secretary Townshend, and of every member of the British commission; beside a profusion of the private letters and papers of Shelburne and of Oswald. I have also the private papers, as well as the official ones, of Strachey; and the courtesy of the present head of the family voluntarily gave consent to the unrestricted use of them. The Marquis of Lansdowne, of 1848, wa
nown to favor the Americans. Count Florida Blanca to Count de Aranda, 13 Jan., 1778. Communicated with other documents from the Spanish archives by Don Pascual de Gayangos. Count Montmorin, the successor of d'ossun as French ambassador at Madrid, had in his childhood been a playmate of the king of France, whose friendship he retained, so that his position was one of independence and dignity. As a man of honor, he desired to deal fairly with the United States, and he observed with impartkingdom was brought nearer to bankruptcy by straining the public credit without corre- Chap. VI.} 1778. sponding taxation. The diplomacy of Spain during the year proved still less effective. Florida Blanca began with the British minister at Madrid, by affecting ignorance of the measures of the French cabinet, and assuring him that his Catholic Majesty neither condemned nor justified the steps taken by France; but that, as they had been entered upon without the least concert with him, he th
lf on every side, and God only knows what can be attained. Yet, rather than remain in a state of isolation, Vergennes on the day before Christmas, 1778, offered the king of Spain carte blanche to frame a treaty which the ambassador of France at Madrid should have full power to sign. Vergennes to Montmorin, 24 Dec., 1778. Chap. VIII.} 1778. But Florida Blanca reasoned, that France would be more strongly bound by articles of her own proposing, and therefore answered: The Catholic king will nsh government, in its intercourse with England, sedulously continued its offers of mediation. Lest their ambassador at London should betray the secret, he was kept in the dark, and misled; Grantham, the British ambassador at Chap. VIII.} 1779. Madrid, hoodwinked by the stupendous dissimulation of Florida Blanca, wrote home in January, 1779: I really believe this court is sincere in wishing to bring about a pacification; Grantham toWeymouth, Jan., 1779, (indorsed) received 1 Feb from the Ma
myself; for if Chap. XI.} 1779. they determine to rise, our hand will not be recognised in the work. Vergennes to Montmorin, 29 May, 1779. An American was selected as the agent of France, and instructed to form close relations with the principal presbyterians, especially with the ministers. After gaining their confidence, he might offer to become their mediator with France. The extreme and universal discontent in Ireland might imply a disposition to revolt. The French ambassador at Madrid advised Florida Blanca to send an agent to the Irish Catholics. At the same time he reported to his government wisely: The troubles in Ireland can be regarded only as a diversion, useful by dividing the attention of England. An insurrection in Ireland cannot have success as in America. Montmorin to Vergennes, 11 June, 1779. The emissary selected in Spain was a Catholic priest, who was promised a bishopric if he should succeed in his undertaking. He could have no success. After the fir
to Potemkin that the empress should make a strong declaration at Versailles and Madrid, and second it by arming all her naval force. To this Potemkin objected that of the empress herself, and a reference to the just reproaches of the courts of Madrid and Versailles against Great Britain for troubling the liberty of commerce was ier was expedited to Stockholm, and thence to Copenhagen, the Hague, Paris, and Madrid. Goertz to Frederic, 7 March, 1780. On the twenty-second of February, PotemkFrederic, and by a courier despatched a copy of it to the French ambassador at Madrid, with the instruction: I should Chap. XII.} 1780. March. wrong your penetratiida Blanca, and it was impossible to resist its advice. The distance between Madrid and Petersburg prolonged the violent crisis; but before a letter could have reaich came upon Great Britain as a surprise, a welcome was prepared in France and Madrid. The empress made haste to invite Sweden, Denmark, Portugal, and the Netherl
, congress having Sept. 2. ascertained that the sum of outstanding emissions was but a little short of one hundred and sixty millions, limited paper money to two hundred mil- Chap. XIX.} 1779. Oct. lions; and the limit was reached before the end of the year. In October, it appointed Henry Laurens of South Carolina to negotiate a loan of ten millions in the Netherlands. In November, it further resolved Nov. to draw upon him for one hundred thousand pounds sterling; and to draw on Jay at Madrid, for as much more. The two were instructed mutually to support each other; but neither of them had any resources. The king of Spain was the most determined foe to the independence of the United States; and the United Provinces had not yet acknowledged their existence. In the midst of these financial straits, the year came to an end; and a paper dollar, which in January had been worth twelve and a half cents, was in December worth less than two and a half cents. The legislature of Virgi
as the war lasted, neither France nor Great Britain could interfere. Spain had just heard of an insurrection begun by ex-Jesuits in Peru, and supported by Tupac Amaru, who claimed descent from the ancient royal family of the Incas. But the first reports were not alarming, and she was still disposed to pursue the separate negotiation with Great Britain. The suggestion of Hillsborough to exchange Gibraltar for Porto Rico was rejected by Florida Blanca; and Cumberland, the British agent at Madrid, having nothing to propose which King Charles was willing to accept, returned from his fruitless expedition. The results of the campaign outside of the United States were indecisive. The French again made an unsuccessful attempt to recover the isle of Jersey. The garrison of Gibraltar was once more reduced to a state of famine, and ere the middle of April was once more relieved. The English and Dutch fleets encountered each other in August near the Dogger Bank, and for three hours and
ein pouvoir de Mr. Oswald. Je pense, Monsieur, qu'il sera utile que vous disiez cette particularity a Mr. Livingston, afin qu'il puisse s'il le juge a propos ramener les deux plenipotentiaires americains รก la teneur de leurs instructions. Vergennes to Luzerne, 14 Oct., 1782. After the capture of Minorca by the Duke de Crillon, Chap. XXIX.} 1782. Sept. the French and Spanish fleets united under his command to reduce Gibraltar; and Count d'artois, the brother of the king, passed through Madrid to be present at its surrender. But danger inspired the British garrison with an unconquerable intrepidity. By showers of red-hot shot, and by a most heroic sortie under General Elliot, the batteries which were thought to be fire-proof were blown up or consumed, and a fleet under Lord Howe was close at hand to replenish the stores of the fortress. The news of the catastrophe made Paris clamorous for peace. France, it was said, is engaged in a useless war for thankless allies. She has su