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When the Lacedaemonians, men of Athens, had the supremacy of land and sea, and were holding with governors and garrisons all the frontiers of Attica, Euboea, Tanagra, all Boeotia, Megara, Aegina, Ceos, and the other islands, for at that time Athens had no ships and no walls, you marched out to Haliartus,Haliartus, 395 B.C.; Corinth, 394 B.C.; Decelean war, the last period, 4l3-404, of the Peloponnesian war, when the Spartans held the fortified position of Decelea in Attica. and again a few days later to Corinth. The Athenians of those days had good reason to bear malice against the Corinthians and the Thebans for their conduct during the Decelean War; but they bore no malice whatever.
In the fire at Sardis,In 498. a temple of Cybebe,Or Cybele, the great goddess of the Phrygians and Lydians. the goddess of that country, was burnt, and the Persians afterwards made this their pretext for burning the temples of Hellas. At this time, the Persians of the provinces this sideLit. “within”; that is, from the Greek point of view, and so west of the Halys. of the Halys, on hearing of these matters, gathered together and came to aid the Lydians. It chanced that they found the Ionians no longer at Sardis, but following on their tracks, they caught them at Ephesus. There the Ionians stood arrayed to meet them, but were utterly routed in the battle. The Persians put to the sword many men of renown including Eualcides the general of the Eretrians who had won crowns as victor in the games and been greatly praised by Simonides of Ceos. Those of the Ionians who escaped from the battle fled, each to his cit
Finding the message credible, they first landed many of the Persians on the islet of Psyttalea, which lies between Salamis and the mainland. When it was midnight, they brought their western wing in a circle towards Salamis, and those stationed at Ceos and Cynosura also put out to sea, occupying all the passage as far as Munychia with their ships. They launched their ships in this way so that the Hellenes would have no escape: they would be trapped at Salamis and pay the penalty for the battles at Artemisium. The purpose of their landing Persians on the islet called Psyttalea was this: when the battle took place, it was chiefly there that the men and wrecks would be washed ashore, for the island lay in the path of the impending battle. The Persians would be able to save some of those who washed up and kill the others. They did this in silence for fear that their enemies hear, making their preparations at night without sleep.
She who used once to champion the freedom of her fellow Greeks was now content if she could safely meet the dangers that her own defence entailed. In the past she had ruled a wide extent of foreign land; now she was disputing with Macedon for her own. The people whom Lacedaemonians and Peloponnesians, whom the Greeks of Asia used once to summon to their help,Two notable occasions when Athens sent help to Sparta were the Third Messenian War （464 B.C.） and the campaign of Mantinea （362 B.C.）. She had assisted the Asiatic Greeks in the revolt of Aristagoras （c. 498 B.C.） and at the time of the Delian League. were now entreating men of Andros, Ceos, Troezen and Epidaurus to sen
And so over their graves a testimony to their courage can be seen, faithfully engraved for every Greek to read: to the Spartans:Go tell the Spartans, thou who passest by,That here obedient to their laws we lie.SimonidesAnd to your ancestors:Athenians, guarding Greece, subdued in fightAt Marathon the gilded Persians' might.Both epigrams are by Simonides of Ceos （c. 560-470 B.C.）. The well-known version of the first given here is that of W. L. Bowles, which has been somewhat modified in the Oxford Book of Greek Verse in Translation（no. 212）. Strabo, who quotes the original （Strab. 9.4.）, agrees with the wording given by Lycurgus, except that for the first three words he has: w)= ce/n' a)pa/ggeilon. Herodotus （Hdt. 7.228） has a slightly different version:w)= cei=n' a)gge/llein *lakedaimoni/ois, o(/ti th=|de kei/meqa toi=s kei/wn r(h/masi peiqo/menoii. 42）:Dic, hospes, Spartae nos te hic vidisse iacentesdum sanctis patriae legibus obs
Pindar, Isthmean (ed. Diane Arnson Svarlien),
For Herodotus of Thebes
458 B. C.
Isthmian 1 For Herodotus of Thebes Chariot Race ?458 B. C. My mother, Thebe of the golden shield, I shall place your interests above my lack of leisure. May rocky Delos, in whose praises I have poured myself out, not be indignant at me.What is dearer to good men than their noble parents? Yield, island of Apollo; indeed, with the help of the gods I shall accomplish the end of both graceful songs, honoring in the dance both Phoebus with the unshorn hair, in wave-washed Ceos with its mariners, and the sea-dividing reef of the Isthmus.Since the Isthmus gave to the people of Cadmus six garlands from her games, the glory of triumph for my fatherland, where Alcmena bore her fearless son, before whom the bold hounds of Geryon once trembled. But I, while I frame for Herodotus a prize of honor for his four-horse chariot,and for managing the reins with his own hands and not another's, want to join him to the song of Castor or of Iolaus, for of all heroes they were the strongest charioteers, the