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the water may be removed by pumping, the earth is excavated by digging as the work proceeds, and building up as the structure descends. In sinking wells by sections which are curbed before another section is excavated, the earth is removed from the central part and struts inserted, to hold the upper section while the other is built beneath. Iron curbs are of boiler-iron or of cast-iron segments bolted together, rings being added at the top as the structure descends. The well at Southampton, England, was some hundreds of feet in depth, and curbed in this way. It was intended to be artesian, but the water did not thus respond. b. A boarded structure to contain concrete, which hardens and acts as a pier or foundation. c. The outer casing-wheel of a turbine. It is a cylinder inserted into the floor of the forebay, inclosing the wheel which rotates within. d. A curved shrouding which confines the water against the floats or buckets of a scoop-wheel or breast-wheel (which se
thographic ink will adhere to those parts where light has acted. The gelatine print is accordingly inked with a lithographic transfer-ink, and the print thus produced is transferred to the surface of stone or zinc. But a lithographic stone does not do more than discriminate between black and white; it will not recognize half-tones. The process is therefore only suitable for the production of work either in dots or lines. For this purpose it was used by Mr. Osborne in Australia, in Southampton, England, and now very extensively in this country. See photolithography. Poitevin's process, 1855, belongs to this group, and is typical of its kind. He coated the stone with bichromated albumen, and put it through the actinic processes in situ, then inked up on the stone. Another process in the second group is Photogalvanography (which see). See also Photoglyphic engraving; Photozincograph. A third process is the Woodburn, in which a gelatine picture, having been obtained by lig
test, which removes from gas the vapors upon which its luminosity depends. See Ure, Vol. I. p. 439, American edition. Photo-mi-cog′ra-phy. At the time when photography began to attract attention, efforts were made by Donne to depict microscopic objects by the Daguerrean process, which did not, however, yield satisfactory results. The new process of photography, however, in the hands of such experimenters as Professor Gerlach of Erlangen, Albert of Munich, and Dr. R. L. Maddox of Southampton, was more successfully employed for this purpose. In America, the chief experimenters have been Professor O. N. Rood of Columbia College, Mr. Lewis N. Rutherford of New York, and Colonel J. J. Woodward of the United States Army Medical Museum. The latter has devoted much attention to the subject, and has succeeded in carrying the process to a high degree of perfection. In 1861, Professor Rood, in a paper published in Silliman's journal, described the process as then employed by him, by
(A. D. 700) that the Roman roads of England were built at various periods in the second, third, and fourth centuries; the people, criminals, and the Roman soldiery being employed thereon. The four principal ones were, — 1. Watling Street; from Kent, by way of London, to Cardigan Bay, in Wales. 2. Ikenild Street; from St. David's, Wales, by way of Birmingham, Derby, and York, to Tynemouth, England. 3. Fosse Way; from Cornwall to Lincoln. 4. Ermin Street; from St. David's to Southampton. In many places the remains are yet visible; in many others the old pavement is below the surface, having been buried by the vegetable growth of centuries, or covered by earth from other natural cause, such as land-slips and watercourses. Highways were first made public in many parts of England by the Romans. In the time of Edward I. they were ordered to be widened and cleared of trees within 200 feet of the road, for the prevention of robberies. Toll was granted on one in London
the work of the fairies, and its name Durandal (dur en diable, as hard as the devil ) is indicative of its origin, and accounts for the fact (?) that he was able to cleave the Pyrenees with it. It was also called Durandarte, Durindana, Durlindana. Curtana was another famous sword of Orlando. Its name was given to the first royal sword of England from a very early period; in the wardrobe accounts for 1483 it is so designated. Morglay (glaive de la mort) was the sword of Sir Bevis of Southampton. Tizona was the famous sword of the Cid. Andrea Ferrara, so long believed to be the name of a celebrated Italian sword-maker, must be given up Andrea is only an occasional prefix, and Ferrara is most probably a corruption of ferrarium, a weapon-smith, or cutler. The Lord Mayor of London used to bear three swords, — a common, a Sunday, and a pearl sword. These were not famous in chivalric records. Japanese officials of a certain grade wear two swords, the hilts projecting out