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r axes oblique to their faces, and on account of the difficulty of their construction are seldom employed, unless in railroad bridges where the direction of the line of the road renders it necessary to cross streams obliquely to their courses. In such cases it is necessary that the piers should be parallel to the current of the stream, in order to offer as little resistance as possible and afford a free passage to the water. A bridge arched in this manner is said to have been built near Florence as early as 1530, but their general introduction dates no farther back than the era of the commencement of railroad construction, about or a little previous to 1830. Skew arch. The ordinary method of building a skew arch (Fig. 390) is to make it a portion of a hollow cylinder, the voussoirs being laid in parallel spiral courses, and their beds worked in such a manner that in any section of the cylinder perpendicular to its axis the lines formed by their intersection with the plane of
king the engraving in such a manner that the impression itself might be beautiful and worth keeping for its merits, other than as a workman's copy. In copper-plate engraving the lines are etched, or cut by a graver in a plate; then filled with an ink; the surface of the plate wiped clean; the paper laid upon the surface of the plate, and both run through a roller-press, by which the ink is transferred to the paper. Vasari ascribes the invention of engraving on copper to a goldsmith of Florence named Maso Finiguerra, about 1460. The oldest engravers whose names and marks are known were Israel de Mecheln, of Bokholt, in the bishopric of Munster; Martin Schoen, of Colmar, in Alsace, where he died 1486; Michael Wolgemuth, of Nuremberg, the preceptor of the famous Albert Durer. Cop′per-plate Print′ing-press. This press is for obtaining impressions from sunken engravings; that is, those in which the design is cut into the copper or steel plate, in contradistinction to such as ha
e of a prolonged or oblate spheroidal variation. In the data following, the hight given is that of the apex above the ground. The dome of the Pantheon at Rome is a hemisphere 142 feet in diameter, 143 feet high above the floor of the rotunda. The dome of St. Sophia at Constantinople is an oblate semi-spheroid 104 feet in diameter, 201 feet high. It is said to be built of earthenware and pumice-stone, not of cut stone. It was built in the sixth century. The dome in the Duomo of Florence was built by Brunelleschi in 1417. It is of brick, octagonal in plan, 139 feet in diameter, and 310 feet in hight. The dome of St. Peter's, at Rome, was built at the close of the sixteenth century, from designs left by Michael Angelo. It is 139 feet in diameter, 330 feet high. The dome of St. Paul's, at London, by Sir Christopher Wren, is not masonry, but a shell inclosing the brick cone which supports the lantern. It is 112 feet in diameter, 215 feet high. Internal Diameter.Int
.) A form of metal planingmachine which has short, quick motions, and is used in shaping objects, planing seats for valves, faces for the same, etc. 10. (Nautical.) The cross-trees. 11. (Music.) Formerly the hammer or quillcarrier of a clavichord, virginal, harpsichord, or spinet, but now an intermediate piece which conveys to the hammer the motion imparted to the key. The piano-movement jack, which imparts the motion of the key to the hammer, is the invention of Christofori of Florence, 1711. Rimbault's Pianoforte, London, 1860. See piano-Forte. As a compound word, see under the following heads: — Boot-jack.Jack-frame. Bottle-jack.Jack-head pump. Builder's jack.Jack-in-a-basket. Carriage-jack.Jack-in-a-box. Chimney-jack.Jack-knife. Claw-jack.Jack-ladder. Crick.Jack-pin. Fence-jack.Jack-plane. Hand-screw.Jack-rafter. Hoisting-jack.Jack-screw. Hydraulic jack.Jack-sinker. Hydraulic lifting-jack (see hydraulic presses and lifters).Jack-staff. Jack-stay.
down for that time, and form the way on which the shuttle travels. Leaf—bridge. A form of drawbridge in which the rising leaf or leaves swing vertically on hinges. One form of bascule comes under this description. Leaf—met′al. 1. Gold-leaf; hammered gold. See gold-beating. 2. Bronze leaf, or Dutch leaf. The qualities are known as, — a. Common; soft, reddish color, composed of zinc 1, copper 3. b. French; harder, less ductile, yellow, larger proportion of zinc. c. Florence; greenish-gold color, still larger proportion of zinc. d. White leaf; tin-foil (which see). Leaf—sight. One on the breech of a fire-arm, having a hinged elevating piece (one or more) as a guide for elevation in firing. A back-sight. Leaf—turn′er. A device for turning sheets of music or leaves in a printed book. The fingers D are inserted between the leaves, and by pressing a key C are successively released as required from a catch F, allowing a spring to act, carryin
n India, to which, from some unknown cause, iron spontaneously attaches itself. When an iron needle is touched by the stone, it at once points towards the North Star; from whence it has become useful to those who navigate the seas. Latini of Florence, the preceptor of Dante, in a work published in Paris in 1260, entitled the Treasure, wrote thus:— When I was in England, Friar Bacon showed me a magnet,—an ugly black stone to which iron doth willingly cling. You rub a needle upon it; then. Boshes.Estufa process of extracting si. ver. Bottoms. Box-metalFagot. Brake-sieve.Fandon. Brass.Fauld. Brass-foil.Fetting. BrassingFiles. Tempering Brass-powder.Fining-pot. Brazing.Fixing. Bronzing.Float. Browning.Floran. Bucking.Florence leaf. Bucking-iron.Flosh. Buddle.Floss. Bull-dog.Floss-hole. Burdon.Flux. Burning.Foil. Burning-house.Foyer. Button.Framing. Cabbling.Frosted metal. Cadmium.Fulguration. Calamine.Furnace. Calcination.Fusible alloy. Calciner.Galvanizi
Roman obelisks were also imported by Augustus and Caligula. Other obelisks are found at Constantinople, Paris, Arles, Florence, etc. The Egyptian obelisks are usually of granite, but there are two small ones in the British Museum made of basalte1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdenPost-meile7,432 EgyptFeddan1.47 EnglandMile1,760 FlandersMijle1,093.63 FlorenceMiglio1,809 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,10. A planetarium is described in a letter from Angelo Politiano to his friend Francesco Casa, as seen by the former at Florence in the fifteenth century. The inventor was one Lorenzo of Florence, and the apparatus was constructed to illustrate theFlorence, and the apparatus was constructed to illustrate the Ptolemaic theory of the heavens. The various parts were moved by trains of cog-wheels. Life of A. Politiano, published by Cadell and Davis, London, about 1800. A planetary clock was made by Finee, 1553, and a planetarium by De Rheita in 1650.
d of harpsichords called piano-forte, are introduced, etc. Piano-Forte movements. A, Bartolomineo Cristofori of Florence, 1711. B, Mason, London, 1755. C, single action. The hammer-harpsichord, so called from the substitution of hammers for plectra, was the first piano-forte, and invented by Cristofori of Florence, 1711. It had a row of leather-topped hammers, which vibrated on a rod and struck the string from below. A projection on the hammer near its axis was struck by a tongu after the geocentric system, which then obtained, — the earth in the center, and so on. A planetarium constructed at Florence in the fifteenth century is described in a letter from Angelo Politiano to his friend Francesca Casa. It illustrated theek book, 1476. Aldus introduced italics, 1476. The Pentateuch in Hebrew, 1482. Homer in folio, by Demetrius of Florence, 1488. The Complutensian Polyglot of Cardinal Ximenes, in 1517. The exact conformity of different copies of the bo
cating shuttle a. Singer pattern, Stitch 19, Plate LVII. Florence, Howe, Wilson, Weed. 12. Similar as to the needle-threeedlethread is controlled by means of a spiral spring. Florence sewing-machine. The Florence sewing-machine is made uFlorence sewing-machine is made under L. W. Langdon's patents, and is shown at Fig. 4864. It makes a lock-stitch by means of a curved needle carried by a vibSewing-Machine Co.13,529 Victor Sewing-Machine Co.6,292 Florence Sewing-Machine Co.5,517 Secor Sewing-Machine Co.4,541 JSinger, Wheeler and Wilson, Weed, Wilson, Howe, Domestic, Florence. 20. Coil in needle-thread. 21. Double coil in needh weapon. A large knife molded like a sword. A skain. Florence skates. Skate-grinder. Skeet. (Nautical.) A sby Andrew Wirz, a pewterer of Zurich, and was employed in Florence with some improvements by Bernoulli, in 1779. See screw.eds of these bouquets a hundred stones are required. The Florence mosaic work does not surpass it. The father of the bui
same; if otherwise, by means of a peculiar dividing-engine, they are lengthened or shortened to correspond with the variation of the bore. The figures and letters are next punched, and the plate is passed laterally between rollers to remove the bur left by the tools. It is then silvered and lacquered, the tube attached, and the whole inserted in its japanned case. As to graduation, the Florentine Academicians took the cold of ice and snow for their zero, and the greatest summer heat of Florence for the upper limit of graduation. These being variable were inefficient. Boyle suggested a fixed point obtained by thawing oil of anise-seed, as it was, unlike ice, always procurable. Hooke suggested freezing water as one point. Halley proposed spirit boiling as another point. Newton suggested the boiling point of oil, as the range would be so much increased. He next suggested melting ice and boiling water as two points: the interval to be divided into an arbitrary number of
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