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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Inundations. (search)
s in western Pennsylvania and the loss of 220 lives. 1881, June 12. Disastrous floods began in Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, and Missouri, lasting several days, and causing the destruction of much property. 1882, Feb. 22. The valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers were flooded, and the loss of life and property was so great that the governor of Mississippi made a public appeal for help. 1883, February. Portions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky were visited by a disastrous flood, which was most severe at Cincinnati, lasting several days. 1884, February. The Ohio River overflowed its banks, causing the loss of fifteen lives and rendering 5,000 people homeless. 1886, Jan. 5. Pennsylvania, New York, and several of the New England States were visited by floods, and great damage was done to property. 1886, Aug. 20. A storm in Texas was followed by a flood, which was particularly disastrous in Galveston, where twenty-eight lives were lost and property d
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Jefferson, Fort (search)
d been added to the force of another bold leader (see Shelby, Evan), and he had to abandon the undertaking. Jefferson, then governor of Virginia, gave instructions for the occupation of a station on the Mississippi River between the mouth of the Ohio and the parallel of 36° 30′; and in the spring of 1780 Clarke chose a strong position 5 miles below the mouth of the Ohio, whereon he built Fort Jefferson. Here the Americans planted their first sentinel to watch over the freedom of the navigatioof another bold leader (see Shelby, Evan), and he had to abandon the undertaking. Jefferson, then governor of Virginia, gave instructions for the occupation of a station on the Mississippi River between the mouth of the Ohio and the parallel of 36° 30′; and in the spring of 1780 Clarke chose a strong position 5 miles below the mouth of the Ohio, whereon he built Fort Jefferson. Here the Americans planted their first sentinel to watch over the freedom of the navigation of the Father of w
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Kentucky, (search)
s. So Columbus was held and fortified by the Confederates. General Grant, then in command of the district at Cairo, took military possession of Paducah, in northern Kentucky, with National troops, and the neutrality of Kentucky was no longer respected. The seizure of Columbus opened the way for the infliction upon the people of that First (permanent) State-House, Frankfort, Ky. Kentucky River, from high Bridge. State of the horrors of war. All Kentucky, for 100 miles south of the Ohio River, was made a military department, with Gen. Robert Anderson, the hero of Fort Sumter, for its commander. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, was in command of the Confederate Western Department, which included southern and western Kentucky, then held by the Confederates, and the State of Tennessee, with his headquarters at Nashville. Under the shadow of his power the Confederates of Kentucky met in convention at Russellville, Oct. 29, 1861. They drew up a manifesto in which the grievances of
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), La Salle, Robert Cavelter, Sieur de 1643- (search)
er, Sieur de 1643- Explorer; born in Rouen, France, Nov. 22. 1643: in early life became a Jesuit, and thereby forfeited his patrimony. He afterwards left the order, and went to Canada as an adventurer in 1666. From the Sulpicians, seigneurs of Montreal, he obtained a grant of land and founded Lachine. Tales of the wonders and riches of the wilderness inspired him with a desire to explore. With two Sulpicians, he went into the wilds of western New York, and afterwards went down the Ohio River as far as the site of Louisville. Governor Frontenac became his friend, and in the autumn of 1674 he went to France bearing a letter from the governorgeneral, strongly recommending him to Colbert, the French premier. Honors and privileges were bestowed upon him at the French Court, and he was made governor of Fort Frontenac, erected on the site of Kingston, at the foot of Lake Ontario, which he greatly strengthened, and gathered Indian settlers around it. He had very soon a squadron of f
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lincoln, Abraham 1809- (search)
t to work to show him that he misunderstood the whole scope of my speech, and that I really never intended to set the people at war with one another. As an illustration, the next time I met him, which was at Springfield, I used this expression, that I claimed no right under the Constitution, nor had I any inclination, to enter into the slave States and interfere with the institutions of slavery. He says upon that, Lincoln will not enter into the slave States, but will go to the banks of the Ohio, on this side, and shoot over! He runs on, step by step, in the horse-chestnut style of argument, until in the Springfield speech he says, Unless he shall be successful in firing his batteries until he shall have extinguished slavery in all the States, the Union shall be dissolved. Now I don't think that was exactly the way to treat a kind, amiable, intelligent gentleman. I know, if I had asked the judge to show when or where it was I had said that, if I didn't succeed in firing into the s
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Marquette, Jacques 1637- (search)
ion of St. Ignatius. Hearing of the Mississippi River, he resolved to find it, and in 1669 he prepared for the exploration of that stream, when he received orders to join Joliet in a thorough exploration of the whole course of the great river. That explorer and five others left Mackinaw in two canoes in May, 1673, and, reaching the Wisconsin River by way of Green Bay, Fox River, and a portage, floated down that stream to the Mississippi, where they arrived June 17. Near the mouth of the Ohio River savages told them it was not more than ten days journey to the sea. Voyaging down the great river until they were satisfied, when at the mouth of the Arkansas River, that the Mississippi emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, and not into the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean, they concluded to return, to avoid captivity among the Spaniards farther south. They had accomplished their errand, and travelled in open canoes over 2,500 miles. Passing up the Illinois River instead of the Wisconsin, they reach
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Mobilian, or Floridian, Indians, (search)
or Floridian, Indians, A nation composed of a large number of tribes; ranking next to the Algonquians in the extent of their domain and power when Europeans discovered them. They were superior to most of the Algonquians in the attainments which lead to civilization, and they were evidently related to the inhabitants of Central and South America. The domain of the Mobilians extended along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River, more than 600 miles. It stretched northward along the Atlantic coast to the mouth of the Cape Fear River, and up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Ohio, comprising a large portion of the present cotton-growing States. A greater portion of Georgia, the whole of Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, and parts of South Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky were included in their territory. The nation was divided into three grand confederacies—viz., Muscoghees, or Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws. See these titles respectivel
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Morgan, John Hunt 1826- (search)
ay track. On July 17 he had a sharp fight with the Home Guards at Cynthiana, who were dispersed. He hoped to plunder the rich city of Cincinnati. His approach inspired the inhabitants with terror; but a pursuing cavalry force under Green Clay Smith, of Kentucky, caused him to retreat southward in the direction of Richmond. On his retreat his raiders stole horses and robbed stores without inquiring whether the property belonged to friend or foe. In June and July, 1863, he crossed the Ohio River for the purpose of plunder for himself and followers; to prepare the way for Buckner to dash into Kentucky from Tennessee and seize Louisville and, with Morgan, to capture Cincinnati; to form the nucleus of an armed counter-revolution in the Northwest, where the Knights of the Golden circle, or the Sons of liberty of the peace faction, were numerous; and to prevent reinforcements from being sent to Meade from that region. Already about eighty Kentuckians had crossed the Ohio (June 19) int
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Mound-builders, (search)
t an unknown period in its history. They have left traces of agriculture and skill in arts, and evidences of having attained to a considerable degree of civilization. All over the continent between the great range of hills extending from the northern part of Vermont far towards the Gulf of Mexico and the Rocky Mountains, traces of this mysterious people are found in the remains of earthworks, exceedingly numerous, especially in the region northward Great earthwork near Newark. of the Ohio River. These consist of, evidently, military works, places of sepulture, places of sacrifice, and mounds in the forms of animals, such as the buffalo, eagle, turtle, serpent, lizard, alligator, etc. It is estimated that more than 10,000 mounds and more than 2,000 earth enclosures are in the State of Ohio alone. One of the most interesting of these earth-enclosures is near Newark, in the midst of the primeval forest. It is composed of a continuous mound that sweeps in a perfect circle a mile
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New Orleans. (search)
ublic established in America. In the War of 1812-15. In 1814, when the British had captured the American flotilla on Lake Borgne, there seemed to Chalmette's plantation. be no obstacle to the seizure of the city of New Orleans. Troops for its defence were few, and arms fewer still. Some months before, Jackson had called for a supply of arms for the Southwest from the arsenal at Pittsburg, but from an unwillingness to pay the freight demanded by the only steamboat then navigating the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, these means of defence had been shipped in keel-boats, and did not arrive until after the fate of the city had been decided. Jackson put forth amazing energy. He called for Tennessee and Kentucky volunteers, and urged the legislature of Louisiana to work energetically with him. That body seemed unwilling or unable to comprehend the gravity of the situation, while the governor (Claiborne) was all alive with patriotic zeal. Even the muskets on hand in the city would
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