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rs of age, at about one hundred and twenty thousand, most of whom possessed arms, and were expert in their use. There could be no general muster; but during the summer, the drum and fife were heard in every hamlet, and the several companies paraded for discipline. One day in August, Gage revoked Hancock's commission in the Boston cadets; and that company resented the insult by returning the king's standard and disbanding. Putnam, of Connecticut, famous for service near Lake George and Ticonderoga, before the walls of Havana, and far up the lakes against Pontiac, a pioneer of emigration to the southern banks of the Mississippi, the oracle of all patriot circles in his neighborhood, rode to Boston with one hundred and thirty sheep, as a gift from the parish of Brooklyn. The old hero became Warren's guest, and every one's favorite. The officers whom he visited on Boston Common bantered him about coming down to fight. Twenty ships of the line and twenty regiments, said Major Small,
nstitutional courts were to be forbidden to proceed, and their officers to be detested as traitors cloaked with a pretext of law. It was known that Gage had orders to make arrests; each individual patriot was therefore placed under the protection of his county and of the province. The practice of the military art was declared to be the duty of the people. Gage began to show alarm. He looked about him for more troops; he recommended the repair of Crown Point; and a strong garrison at Ticonderoga; a well-guarded line of communication between New York and Canada. He himself came from Salem to support the chief justice in opening the court at Boston. On the same day began the term of the inferior court at Springfield. But early in the morning, fifteen hundred or two thousand men, with drums and trumpets, marched into that town, set up a black flag at the court-house, and threatened death to any one who should enter. After some treaty, the judges executed a written covenant no
e the inhabitants of the province, and draw them into perjuries, riots, sedition, treason and rebellion, though destitute of disciplined troops, munitions of war, armed vessels, military stores, and money, they had confidence that a small people, resolute in its convictions, outweighs an empire. Encouraged by the presence of Samuel Adams, after his return from Philadelphia, they adopted all the recommendations of the continental congress. While Gage delayed to strengthen Crown Point and Ticonderoga, the keys of the North, they established a secret correspondence with Canada. They entreated the ministers of the gospel in the colony, to assist in avoiding that dreadful slavery, with which all were now threatened. You, said they to the collective inhabitants of Massachusetts, are placed by Providence in the post of honor, because it is the post of danger; and while struggling for the noblest objects, the eyes not only of North America and the whole British empire, but of all Europe a
dians who were domiciled at Stockbridge, the congress voted a blanket and a ribbon as a testimony of affection, saying, we are all brothers. The Stockbridge Indians, after deliberating in council for two days, promised in their turn to intercede with the Six Nations in behalf of the colonists among whom they dwelt. Meantime the Green Mountain Boys formally renounced the government of New York, which was virtually renouncing their allegiance to the king; and agreed to seize the fort at Ticonderoga as soon as the king's troops should commit hostilities. Their purpose was communicated in profound secrecy to Thomas Walker, a restless Anglo-Canadian, at Montreal. In my opinion, wrote Walker to Samuel Adams and Joseph Warren, they are the most proper persons for this job, which will effectually curb the province of Quebec. The congress of Massachusetts adopted a code for its future army, and authorized the committee of safety to form and pay six companies of artillery; yet they ref
ghout the colony; and after scouring five principal counties, the whole amount that could be found was less than sixty-eight barrels. The other colonies, to which the most earnest entreaties were addressed for a supply, were equally unprovided. In the colony of New York, there were not more than one hundred pounds of Chap. XXX.} 1775. May 1. powder for sale. Notwithstanding these obstacles, the scheming genius of New England was in the highest activity. While the expedition against Ticonderoga was sanctioned by a commission granted to Benedict Arnold, the congress, which was then sitting in Watertown, received from Jonathan Brewer, of Waltham, a proposition to march with a body of five hundred volunteers to Quebec, by way of the rivers Kennebeck and Chaudiere, in order to draw the governor of Canada, with his troops, into that quarter, and thus secure the northern and western frontiers from inroads. He was sure it could be executed with all the facility imaginable. The design
by which it was hoped to insulate and reduce New England. On Saturday, the twenty-ninth of April, Samuel Adams and Hancock, as they passed through Hartford, had secretly met the governor and council of Connecticut, to promote the surprise of Ticonderoga, which had been planned by the Green Mountain Boys. Ethan Allen was encouraged by an express messenger to hold them in readiness; and the necessary funds were furnished from the treasury of Connecticut. Sixteen men of that colony leaving Sali the continental congress! answered Allen. Delaplace began to speak again, but was peremptorily interrupted, and at sight of Allen's drawn sword near his head, he gave up the garrison, ordering his men to be paraded without arms. Thus was Ticonderoga taken in the gray of the morning of the tenth of May. What cost the British nation eight millions sterling, a succession of campaigns and many lives, was won in ten minutes by a few undisciplined men, without the loss of life or limb. The
the eastern frontier of France. When he left Dover, nothing had been heard from America later than the retreat of the British from Concord, and the surprise of Ticonderoga. Metz, the strongest place on the east of France, was a particular object of his journey; and as his tour was made with the sanction of Louis the Sixteenth, he British laws. This argument they turned in all its different shapes, and fashioned into general theories. The field of Lexington, followed by the taking of Ticonderoga, fixed the attention of the government of France. From the busy correspondence between Vergennes and the French embassy at London, it appeared, that the Britisand, such was the substance of its numerous reports to Vergennes, is in a position, from which she never can extricate herself. Either all rules are false, or the Americans will never again consent to become her subjects. So judged the statesmen of France, on hearing of the retreat from Concord, and the seizure of Ticonderoga.
Chapter 34: The second continental congress. May, 1775. few hours after the surrender of Ticonderoga, Chap. XXXIV} 1775. May 10. the second continental congress met at Philadelphia. There among the delegates, appeared Franklin and Samuel Adams; John Adams, and Washington, and Richard Henry Lee; soon joined by Patrick Henry, and by George Clinton, Jay, and Jay's college friend, the younger Robert R. Livingston, of New York. Whom did they represent? and what were their functions? They were committees from twelve colonies, deputed to consult on measures of conciliation, with no means of resistance to oppression beyond a voluntary agreement for the suspension of importations from Great Britain. They formed no confederacy; they were not an executive government; they were not even a legislative body. They owed the use of a hall for their sessions to the courtesy of the carpenters of the city; there was not a foot of land on which they had the right to execute their dec
8. of private and earnest discussion; but the temper of the congress was still irresolute, when on the eighteenth of May they received the news of the taking of Ticonderoga. The achievement was not in harmony with their advice to New York; they for the time rejected the thought of invading Canada, and they were inclined even to abnd; if they could only get gunpowder, they were confident of driving off the British. The same daring prevailed on the northern frontier. The possession of Ticonderoga and Crown Chap. XXXV.} 1775. May. Point, the fortresses round which hovered the chief American traditions and recollections of military service, inflamed the : Had I but five hundred men with me, I would have marched to Montreal. The whole population west of the Green Mountains was interested to keep possession of Ticonderoga. Every man within fifty miles was desired by Arnold to repair to that post or to Crown Point with intrenching tools and all the powder and good arms that could