Apollodorus, Library (ed. Sir James George Frazer), book 3 (search)
eus dwelt in Daulia,
a district of Phocis, and that the tragedy took place in that country; at the same time
he tells us that the population of the district was then Thracian. In this he is
followed by Strab. 9.3.13, Zenobius,
Conon, Pausanias, and Nonnus （Dionys.
iv.320ff.）. Thucydides supports his view by a reference to Greek
poets, who called the nightingale the Daulian bird. The Megarians maintained that Tereus
reigned at Pagae in Megaris, and they showed
his grave in the form of a barrow, at which they sacrificed to him every year, using
gravel in the sacrifice instead of barley groats （Paus.
1.41.8ff.）. But no one who has seen the grey ruined walls and towers
of Daulis, thickly mantled in ivy and
holly-oak, on the summit of precipices that overhang a deep romantic glen at the foot of
the towering slopes of Parnassus, will
willingly consent to divest them of the lege
mple is a kind of
induction and with what kind of material it deals by way of induction. It is
neither the relation of part to whole, nor of whole to part, nor of one whole to
another whole, but of part to part, of like to like, when both come under the
same genus, but one of them is better known than the other. For example, to
prove that Dionysius is aiming at a tyranny, because he asks for a bodyguard,
one might say that Pisistratus before him and Theagenes of Megara did the same, and when they obtained
what they asked for made themselves tyrants. All the other tyrants known may
serve as an example of Dionysius, whose reason, however, for asking for a
bodyguard we do not yet know. All these examples are contained under the same
universal proposition, that one who is aiming at a tyranny asks for a bodyguard.
We have now stated the materials of proofs which are thought to be demonstrative.
But a very great difference betw
consistently made. At one time he made a proposal forbidding anyone to believe
in any but the accepted gods and at another said that the people must not
question the grant of divine honors to AlexanderDemosthenes had merely said: “Let him be the son of Zeus and
Poseidon too if he likes.” Cf. Hyp. 5 col.
31.; and again when he was on the point of being tried
before you, he impeached Callimedon for consorting with the exilesAthens,
unlike most Greek cities, refused to obey Alexander's order for the
restoration of exiles （cf. note on Din.
1.81）. Callimedon, a politician with pro-Macedonian
sympathies, nicknamed the Crab, is mentioned several times by Plutarch
（e.g. Plut. Dem.
27）. in Megara with intent to overthrow the
ed a certain man to desert to Xerxes and to assure him that the ships at
Salamis were going to slip away from that region and
assemble at the Isthmus. Accordingly the king, believing the
man because what he reported was in itself plausible, made haste to prevent the naval forces of
the Greeks from making contact with their armies on land. Therefore he at once dispatched the
Egyptian fleet with orders to block the strait which separates Salamis from the territory of Megaris.This closed the route by which the
Greeks could move west and south to the Peloponnesus;
the Persian fleet already blocked the straits to the east. The main body of his ships
he dispatched to Salamis, ordering it to establish
contact with the enemy and by fighting there decide the issue. The triremes were drawn up by
peoples one after another, in order that, speaking the same language and knowing one another,
the several contingents might assist each other wi
the Corinthians and Megarians over land on their borders and the cities went to war. At first they kept making raids on each other's territory and engaging
in clashes of small parties; but as the quarrel increased, the Megarians, who were increasingly
getting the worse of it and stood in fear of the Corinthians, made allies of the Athenians.
As a result the cities were again equal in military strength,
and when the Corinthians together with Peloponnesians advanced into Megaris with a strong army, the Athenians sent troops to the aid
of the Megarians under the command of Myronides, a man who was admired for his valour. A fierce
engagement took place which lasted a long time and each side matched the other in deeds of
courage, but at last victory lay with the Athenians, who slew many of the enemy. And after a few days there was another fierce battle at Cimolia, as it
is called, and again the Athenians were victorious and slew many of the enemy.T
upon he sailed
against Corinth. There he disembarked the soldiers, and when the Corinthians drew up their forces against
them, the Athenians gained the victory in two battles, slew many of the enemy, and set up a
trophy. There perished in the fighting eight Athenians and more than three hundred
states that two hundred and twelve Corinthians died, and of the Athenians "somewhat fewer than
Nicias then sailed to Crommyon,In Megaris. ravaged its
territory, and seized its stronghold. Then he immediately removed from there and built a
stronghold near Methone,Strabo states that the correct name was Methana (in Argolis; cp. Thuc. 4.45. in which he left a garrison for the twofold purpose
of protecting the place and ravaging the neighbouring countryside; then Nicias plundered the
coast and returned to Athens. After these events the Athenians sent
sixty ships and two thousand hoplites to Cythera,The l
ed a bout with him except Theseus, who out matched him mainly by his skill. For Theseus was the first to discover the art of wrestling, and through him afterwards was established the teaching of the art. Before him men used in wrestling only size and strength of body.Such in my opinion are the most famous legends and sights among the Athenians, and from the beginning my narrative has picked out of much material the things that deserve to be recorded.
Next to Eleusis is the district called Megaris. This too belonged to Athens in ancient times, Pylas the king having left it to Pandion. My evidence is this; in the land is the grave of Pandion, and Nisus, while giving up the rule over the Athenians to Aegeus, the eldest of all the family, was himself made king of Megara and of the territory as far as Corinth. Even at the present day the port of the Megarians is called Nisaea after him. Subsequently in the reign of Codrus the Peloponnesians made an expedition against Athens. Having a
, escaped the flood in the time of Deucalion, and made his escape to the heights of Gerania. The mountain had not yet received this name, but was then named Gerania （Crane Hill） because cranes were flying and Megarus swam towards the cry of the birds.
Not far from this fountain is an ancient sanctuary, and in our day likenesses stand in it of Roman emperors, and a bronze image is there of Artemis surnamed Saviour. There is a story that a detachment of the army of Mardonius, having over run Megaris479 B.C., wished to return to Mardonius at Thebes, but that by the will of Artemis night came on them as they marched, and missing their way they turned into the hilly region. Trying to find out whether there was a hostile force near they shot some missiles. The rock near groaned when struck, and they shot again with greater eagerness,
until at last they used up all their arrows thinking that they were shooting at the enemy. When the day broke, the Megarians attacked, and being men in arm
ader of the women, escaped with a few others to Megara. Having suffered such a military disaster, being in despair at her present situation and even more hopeless of reaching her home in Themiscyra, she died of a broken heart, and the Megarians gave her burial. The shape of her tomb is like an Amazonian shield.
Not far from this is the grave of Tereus, who married Procne the daughter of Pandion. The Megarians say that Tereus was king of the region around what is called Pagae （Springs） of Megaris, but my opinion, which is confirmed by extant evidence, is that he ruled over Daulis beyond Chaeronea, for in ancient times the greater part of what is now called Greece was inhabited by foreigners. When Tereus did what he did to Philomela and Itys suffered at the hands of the women, Tereus found himself unable to seize them.
He committed suicide in Megara, and the Megarians forthwith raised him a barrow, and every year sacrifice to him, using in the sacrifice gravel instead of barley meal;
, who they say arrived from Egypt and became king, being the son of Poseidon and of Libya, daughter of Epphus. Parallel to Nisaea lies the small island of Minoa, where in the war against Nisus anchored the fleet of the Cretans.
The hilly part of Megaris borders upon Boeotia, and in it the Megarians have built the city Pagae and another one called Aegosthena. As you go to Pagae, on turning a little aside from the highway, you are shown a rock with arrows stuck all over it, into which the Persiao that at Megara and exactly like it in shape. There is also a hero-shrine of Aegialeus, son of Adrastus. When the Argives made their second attack on Thebes he died at Glisas early in the first battle, and his relatives carried him to Pagae in Megaris and buried him, the shrine being still called the Aegialeum.
In Aegosthena is a sanctuary of Melampus, son of Amythaon, and a small figure of a man carved upon a slab. To Melampus they sacrifice and hold a festival every year. They say that he