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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Indians, American (search)
large number of tribes west of the Great Lakes and Mississippi, with whom the earlier French explorers came in contact. These, speaking dialects of the same language, apparently, were regarded as parts of one nation. They inhabited the domain stretching northward from the Arkansas River to the western tributary of Lake Winnipeg, and westward along all that line to the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. They have been arranged into four classes: 1. The Winnebagoes, situated between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi, within the domain of the Algonquians. 2. The Assiniboins, or Sioux proper, who formed the more northerly part of the nation. 3. The Southern Sioux, who were seated in the country between the Platte and Arkansas rivers. The Sahaptins include the Nez Perces and Walla Wallas, extending from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, in Oregon and Washington. Beyond these are the more powerful Chinooks, now rapidly melting away. They embraced numerous tribes, from
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Internal improvements. (search)
ana and Illinois, respectively, certain lands in aid of the construction of canals, the first to connect the navigation of the Wabash River with the waters of Lake Erie, and the second to connect the waters of the Illinois River with those of Lake Michigan. A quantity of land equal to onehalf of five sections in width, on each side of the canals, was granted, reserving to the United States each alternate section. It was not an absolute grant of land in fee, for, under certain restrictions, thoceeds they were to repay the government. On the same day (March, 1827) there was granted to Indiana a certain strip of land formerly held by the Pottawattomie Indians, the proceeds of the sale thereof to be applied to building a road front Lake Michigan, via Indianapolis, to some convenient point on the Ohio River. March 3, 1827, a grant was made to Ohio of two sections of land along the entire line of a road to be constructed from Sandusky to Columbus. May 23, 1828, a grant of 400,000 ac
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), La Salle, Robert Cavelter, Sieur de 1643- (search)
River. He proceeded, also, to build a vessel above the great falls for traffic on Lake Erie, and named it the Griffin. In August, 1679, La Salle sailed with De Tonti through the chain of lakes to Green Bay, in the northwestern portion of Lake Michigan. Creditors were pressing him with claims, and he unlawfully gathered furs and sent them back in the Griffin to meet those claims. Then he proceeded, with his party, in canoes, to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, in southwestern Michigan,arty went down the Illinois to its mouth, when he returned to gather his followers and procure means for continuing his explorations. Late in December, 1681, he started from Fort Miami with his expedition, coasted along the southern shore of Lake Michigan, ascended the Chicago River, crossed to the Illinois, descended to the Mississippi, and went down that stream until it separated into three channels, which he explored to the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle named the great stream River Colbert, in
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Marquette, Jacques 1637- (search)
d a chapel, and celebrated the Easter festival in it. Warned by his infirmities that his life was near its end, he attempted to return to Mackinaw. He crossed Lake Michigan to its eastern shore, and, entering the mouth of a small stream that bore his name long afterwards, he prepared to die there. His attendants (two Frenchmen) 75. His companions buried him near, and erected a cross at his grave. His remains were afterwards taken to Mackinaw, where they still repose. Marquette at Lake Michigan. The following account of his arrival at the lake of the Ilinois is from his Narrative: After a month's navigation down the Mississippi, from the 42d tt it indeed, about the 38th degree, to enter another river which greatly shortened our way, and brought us, with little trouble, to the lake of the Ilinois. Lake Michigan was so called for a long time, probably from the fact that through it lay the direct route to the Ilinois villages, which Father Marquette was now the first to
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Meigs, Fort (search)
n early invasion of the Maumee Valley. Ever since the massacre at Frenchtown he had been active in concentrating a large Indian force for the purpose at Amherstburg. He so fired the zeal of Tecumseh and the Prophet by promises Looking up the Maumee Valley, from Fort Meigs. of future success in the schemes for an Indian confederation that, at the beginning of April, the great Shawnee warrior was at Fort Malden with 1,500 Indians. Full 600 of them were drawn from the country between Lake Michigan and the Wabash. On April 23 Proctor, with white and dusky soldiers, more than 2,000 in number, left Amherstburg on a brig and smaller vessels, and, accompanied by two gunboats and some artillery, arrived at the mouth of the Maumee, 12 miles from Fort Meigs, on the 26th, where they landed. One of the royal engineers (Captain Dixon) was sent up with a party to construct works on the left bank of the Maumee, opposite Fort Meigs. On April 28 Harrison was informed of the movement of Proc
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Milwaukee, (search)
Milwaukee, Known as the Cream City, the metropolis of Wisconsin, situated on the western shore of Lake Michigan, was founded by Solomon Juneau, who arrived there Sept. 14, 1818. The place and name were known as early as Nov. 10, 1699, as John Buisson de St. Comes mentions being storm-bound at Milwarck on that date. The east side was first platted and named Milwaukee by Messrs. Juneau and Martin in 1835, the first sale of lots taking place in August of that year. In 1838 the population of Milwaukee was 700; 1840, 1,700; and by decades since, 1850, 20,061; 1860, 45,246; 1870, 71,440; 1880, 115,587; 1890, 204,468; 1900, 285,315; by this census the fourteenth city in the United States in point of population.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Ordinance of 1787. (search)
stern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided, however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And, whenever any of the said States shall have 60,000 free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government: Provided, the constitution and government so to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles; and, so far as it can be c
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Ottawa Indians, (search)
da the Ottawas joined the French. Pontiac (q. v.), who was at the head of the Detroit family, engaged in a great conspiracy in 1763, but was not joined by those in the north of the peninsula. At that time the whole tribe numbered about 1,500. In the Revolution and subsequent hostilities they were opposed to the Americans, but finally made a treaty of peace at Greenville, in 1795, when one band settled on the Miami River. In conjunction with other tribes, they ceded their lands around Lake Michigan to the United States in 1833 in exchange for lands in Missouri, where they flourished for a time. After suffering much trouble, this emigrant band obtained a reservation in the Indian Territory, to which the remnant of this portion of the family emigrated in 1870. The upper Michigan Ottawas remain in the North, in the vicinity of the Great Lakes. There are some in Canada, mingled with other Indians. Roman Catholic and Protestant missions have been established among them. Their own s
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Sac and Fox Indians, (search)
Sac and Fox Indians, Associate families of the Algonquian nation. They were seated on the Detroit River and Saginaw Bay when the French discovered them, but were driven beyond Lake Michigan by the Iroquois. Settling near Green Bay, they took in the Foxes, and they have been intimately associated ever since, especially in wars. Roving and restless, they were continually at war with the fiery Sioux, and were allies of the French against the latter. In the conspiracy of Pontiac (q. v.), the Sacs were his confederates, but the Foxes were not; and in the wars of the Revolution and 1812 they were friends of the British. They were divided into a large number of classes distinguished by totems of different animals. They remained faithful to treaties with the United States until Black Hawk (q. v.) made war in 1832, when Keokuk, a great warrior and diplomat, remained faithful. The Foxes proper were first known as Outagamies (English foxes ). They were visited in their place of exile
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), St. Joseph, Fort (search)
St. Joseph, Fort On the morning of May 25, 1763, a party of Pottawattomie Indians appeared before the English post at the mouth of the St. Joseph's River, on Lake Michigan. That post had been established where the Jesuit missionaries had maintained a missionary station almost sixty years. The fort was garrisoned by an ensign and fourteen men. With friendly greetings the Pottawattomies were permitted to enter the fort, and in two minutes they had massacred the whole garrison. See Pontiac.
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