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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hart, Albert Bushnell 1854- (search)
Valley, but the renowned universities of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Nebraska, and the steadily enlarging universities of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, show a willingness to provide at the expense of the commonwealth an education of a thoroughness and advancement which cannot be had in any Eastern State except by the payment of considerable fees to endowed universities. Almost every branch of human learning is now taught thoroughly and practically somewhere between the Appalachians and the Rockies. Two important tests of intellectuality, though not the only ones, are art and literature. The Rookwood pottery is one of the few indigenous Western arts known at home and abroad; and though there are several art-schools, there is no school of Western art, and no such school is likely; for painters are cosmopolitan; they must be educated where there are the best collections of notable pictures. The only claim which the West has well established to artistic distincti
the grazer and the dairyman, produced bountiful crops of all the cereals, especially wheat and corn; large numbers of cattle and horses were reared, and much attention was given to dairying as well as to general husbandry. It should be borne in mind that in 1860 there was no seaboard connection in Virginia with the great prairie States. The Baltimore & Ohio railroad had but just opened communication by rail with that region. None other of the railways of Virginia had then crossed the Appalachians, consequently there was none of that destructive competition which has now made farming unprofitable in the Atlantic States. The wheat from Virginia, much of it ground into flour by local mills, especially in the Valley and in Alexandria, Fredericksburg, Richmond and Petersburg, found good markets, notably in Baltimore and Richmond, for the West Indies and South America, or the grocery trade of the United States, which then had its best entrepots at Norfolk and Baltimore. The people
re & Ohio railroad, the most important way of travel across Virginia to the west was, as it had been from time immemorial, by the valleys of the James across the Appalachians, and down the Great Kanawha to the Ohio. Vast herds of buffaloes, from the rich open pasture lands of the Great Valley, first engineered and opened trails weneral direction, at an early date, the State co-operated in the construction of a railway, 195 miles of which, from Richmond to Jackson's river, well within the Appalachians, were in operation as the Virginia Central at the beginning of the war, and large numbers of men were then at work constructing the continuation of that lines, and by superior strategy, made possible by these agencies, compelled the Confederates to retreat from the banks of the Ohio to near the Alleghany range of the Appalachians, and abandon to Federal control—which thenceforward during the war was well nigh continuous—most of Trans-Alleghany Virginia, nearly one-third of the State.
eral armies. Lee was embarrassed by the calls for soldiers for other fields, after the fall of Vicksburg, which not only cut the Confederacy in twain, but opened to Federal gunboats and steamboats, for the transportation of troops and supplies, the thousands of miles of navigable waters in the Mississippi basin. With the Trans-Mississippi portion of the Confederacy isolated, there only remained in the control of the Confederacy central and southern portions of the Atlantic highlands—the Appalachians and their slopes. The combined land power and sea power of the Federal government completely surrounded and enclosed the remnant of territory now left in the control of the Confederate government. Only through the port of Wilmington was there an outlet to the outer world, and only through that single port could supplies come from abroad to eke out the scanty stores of the Confederacy. The executive was besieged by calls for the defense of vital points, threatened from all directions.
Jubal Anderson Early (General Ewell having been put in command of the troops in Richmond), to march to Charlottesville and thence by rail to Lynchburg, as expeditiously as possible, to intercept Hunter's advance, which he was making, by way of Lexington, toward that important railway center and depot of supplies. Early, by his energetic movements, was enabled to meet Hunter in front of Lynchburg, on the 17th and 18th, and drive him in disaster across to the Valley, at Salem, and into the Appalachians, in continuous retreat to the Kanawha, while he turned northeast and moved on Washington, as related in detail in a subsequent chapter. After providing a new line of intrenchments, in front of Lee, for his rear guard, Grant, during the night of June 12th, began his retreat; or, as some would call it, his fifth flank movement, but far away from Lee's left, from Cold Harbor to the James. A division of cavalry under Wilson, and his Fifth corps, crossed the Chickahominy at the long brid
; every religious practice to be observed. As the troop marched through the wilderness, the solemn processions, which the usages of the church enjoined, were scrupulously instituted. Portuguese Relation, c. XX., and in various places, speaks of the friars and priests. Vega, l. i. c. VI. 9; l. IV. c. VI. and elsewhere. Herrera confirms the statement. The wanderings of the first season brought the com- 1539 June to Oct. 27. pany from the Bay of Spiritu Santo to the country of the Appalachians, east of the Flint River, and not far from the head of the Bay of Appalachee. Portuguese Relation, c. XII.; Vega, l. II. part II. c. IV.; McCulloh's Researches, 524. The names of the intermediate places cannot be identified. The march was tedious and full of dangers. The Indians were always hostile; the two captives of the former expedition escaped; a Spaniard, who had been kept in slavery from the time of Narvaez, could give no accounts of any country where there was silver or g
bloody and often renewed. The an re- April sounded with savage yells; arrows, as well as bullets, were discharged, with fatal aim, from behind trees and coppices. At last, the savages gave way, and were pursued beyond the present limits of Carolina. The Yamassees retired into Florida, and at St. Augustine were welcomed with peals from the bells and a salute of guns, as though allies and friends had returned from victory. The Uchees left their old settlements below Broad River, and the Appalachians their new cabins near the Savannah, and retired towards Flint River. When Craven returned to Charleston, he was greeted with the applause which his alacrity, courage, and conduct, had merited. The colony had lost about four hundred of its inhabitants. The war with the Yamassees was followed by a domestic revolution in Carolina. Its soil had been defended by its own people, and they resolved, under the sovereignty of the English monarch, to govern themselves. Scalping parties of Y