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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), North, Frederick 1733-1792 (search)
d, April 13, 1733; educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge, he made a lengthened tour on the Continent. In 1754 he entered Parliament for Banbury, which he represented almost thirty years; and entered the cabinet under Pitt, in 1759, as commissioner of the treasury. He warmly supported the Stamp Act (1764-65) and the right of Parliament to tax the colonies. In 1766 he was appointed paymaster of the forces, and the next year was made chancellor of the exchequer, succeeding Charles Townshend as leader of the House of Commons. He became prime minister in 1770, and he held that post during the American Revolutionary War. In February, 1775, Lord North received information from Benjamin Franklin (q. v.), which greatly disheartened him, and he dreaded a war with the colonists which his encouragement of the King's obstinacy was provoking, and, armed with the King's consent in writing, he proposed, in the House of Commons, a plan for conciliation. It was on the general plan, if
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Quebec. (search)
bring Montcalm into action. For this purpose he caused a large force to be landed, under Generals Townshend and Murray (July 10), who were to force the passage of the Montmorency. But the French wend landed upon the beach at the foot of the high bank, just above the Montmorency. Murray and Townshend were ordered to cross that stream above the great falls and cooperate with Monckton, but the ls full of hope. He called a council of officers at his bedside, and, on the suggestion of General Townshend, it was resolved to scale the Heights of Abraham from the St. Lawrence and assault the towine broke into disorder and fled. Monckton. who had taken the command, was severely wounded. Townshend continued the battle until the victory was won. Of the French, 500 were killed, and 1,000 (including the wounded) were made prisoners. The English lost 600 killed and wounded. General Townshend then prepared to besiege the city. Threatened famine within aided him, and five days after the de
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Sons of liberty. (search)
Sons of liberty. At the period of Zenger's trial (1735) the radical opponents of the royal governors were called Sons of Liberty; but the name was not often heard until after the memorable speech in the House of Commons (1765) of Colonel Barre against the taxation of the Americans. In reply to Charles Townshend's assertion that the colonies had been cared for and nourished into strength by the indulgence of the British government, Barre scornfully denied it, saying that care was exercised in sending unfit persons as governors to rule over them— men whose behavior on many occasions had caused the blood of those sons of liberty to recoil within them. The associated patriots in America instantly assumed this name. They were chiefly ardent young men, who loved excitement, but who were truly patriotic. They had, as a general rule, nothing to lose, let events turn as they might. Persons of consideration and influence, though they generally favored the acts of the Sons of Liberty,
rs......1720 Treaty of Lancaster, Pa.: territory beyond the mountains ceded by the Iroquois to the English......June, 1744 Virginia colonists form the Ohio Company for occupation and settlement of the Ohio Valley......1748 Celeron de Bienville's expedition to and down the Ohio River to the mouth of the great Miami......1749 England grants the Ohio Company 600,000 acres of land......1749 Gist and Croghan lead a party of English explorers into the Ohio country......1749 Charles Townshend, of the English ministry, urges the forcible seizure of the Ohio region......1752 French and Indians attack the English trading-post of Pickawillany (Piqua), capture and destroy it......June, 1752 Duquesne sends a French expedition of occupation into the Ohio Valley......1753 Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, determines upon the forcible occupation of the Ohio country......1753 Expedition of Washington to St. Pierre at Le Boeuf......1753 Frederick Post, first Moravian mis
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.), Chapter 8: American political writing, 1760-1789 (search)
ty of Paris, ceding to Great Britain all the vast possessions of France on the mainland of North America, together with Florida and other Spanish territory east of the Mississippi, was concluded 10 February, 1763. On the 23d of that month, Charles Townshend became first lord of trade, with the oversight of colonial administration, in the short-lived ministry of Bute, and some far-reaching changes in the colonial system were presently announced. The salaries of governors and judges, hitherto p and readjusted the tea duties in the interest of the hard-pressed East India Company. The colonies, in resisting the Stamp Act, had dwelt upon the unconstitutionality of internal taxation — by a Parliament in which they were not represented. Townshend now sought to turn the tables by imposing the external taxes which he professed to think the colonies, by inference, had conceded the right of Parliament to impose. The passage of the Townshend acts revived, though to a. less wide extent, th
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.), Index. (search)
tson, Bishop, 109 Time, 263, 270 n., 271 Times, the (Rev. Benjamin Church), 171 Times (Peter Markoe), 175 Times or life in New York, the, 228 Timon of Athens, 12 Tippet, Mehetable, 199 To a man of ninety, 183 To a Robin, 178 To a waterfowl, 212, 266 To Cordelia, 173 To fancy, 178 Tompkins, Governor, 248 Tortesa, the Usurer, 230 To the inhabitants of the province of the Massachusetts Bay, 137 Tour on the Prairies, a, 209, 250 Town meeting, 173 Townshend, Charles, 126 Tract relative to the affair of Hutchinson's letters, 140 Transactions and collections of the American antiquarian Society, 12 n. Transient and permanent in Christianity, the, 344 Trash, 236 Travails of the intellect in the microcosm and MacROCOSMocosm, the, 82 Traveller, the, 233 Travels (William Bartram), 186, 192, 195-198 Travels (Bumaby), 205 Travels (Timothy Dwight), 187, 208, 212 Travels (Abbe Robin), 212 Travels through the interior parts of N
ade had been recruited by a young man gifted with a thousand talents, Of a thousand talents. This praise came from David Hume. the daring and indefatigable Charles Townshend. A younger son of Lord Townshend, ambitious, capable of unwearied labor, bold, and somewhat extravagant in his style of eloquence, yet surpassed, as a debatcolonial governments, and provide an American civil list independent of American legislatures, was the earliest as well as the latest political problem which Charles Townshend attempted to solve. At that time, Murray, as crown lawyer, ruled the cabinet on questions of legal right; Dorset, the father of Lord George Germain, was preGrenville were already of the Treasury Board; and Sandwich, raised by his hold on the affections of the Duke of Bedford, presided at the Admiralty; Halifax, Charles Townshend, and their chap. II.} 1749. colleagues, were busy with remodelling American constitutions; while Bedford, the head of the new party that was in a few years
done by granting to the king the same duties and imposts, that, in the plantations, are usually granted from year to year. But neither the blunt decision of Bedford, nor the arrogant self-reliance of Halifax, nor the restless activity of Charles Townshend, could, of a sudden, sway the system of England in a new direction, or overcome the usages and policy of more than a half century. But new developments were easily given to the commercial and restrictive system. That the colonies might bet; and its people were rapidly gaining skill at the furnace and the forge. In February, Journals of Commons, XXV., 979, 986, 993. 1750, the subject engaged the attention of the House of Commons. To check the danger of American rivalry, Charles Townshend was placed at the head of a committee, on which Horatio Walpole, senior, and Robert Nugent, afterwards Lord Clare,—a man of talents, yet not free from bombast and absurdities, Walpole's Memoirs of Geo. II., i, 171, and Letters.—were amon
ect of attainment on the part of the Board of Trade. Halifax with his colleagues, of whom Charles Townshend was the most enterprising and most fearlessly rash, was appointed to take charge of Americ In the study of the Western World no one of them was so persevering and indefatigable as Charles Townshend. The elaborate memorial on the limits of Acadia, delivered in Paris, by the English commits governor, with instructions which were principally advised Representation of Halifax and Townshend, &c 5 July, 1753. by Halifax and Charles Townshend, and were confirmed by the Privy Council, Charles Townshend, and were confirmed by the Privy Council, Order in Council, 10 August, 1753. in the presence of the king. The new governor, just as he was embarking, was also charged to apply his thoughts very closely to Indian affairs; Thomas Penn their agent in England. Nor did public opinion in Great Britain favor the instructions. Charles Townshend was, indeed, ever ready to defend them to the last; but to the younger Horace Walpole ch
his birth, ambitious of the highest stations; the amiable, candid, irresolute Conway; Charles Townshend, confident in his ability, and flushed with chap. VII.} 1754. success. Then, too, the young dford, Halifax, and the Marquis of Rockingham, were all reputed Whigs. So were George and Charles Townshend, the young Lord North, Grenville, Conwayand Sackville. On the vital elements chap. VII.energetic measures to regain the lost territory. Coxe's Life of Horace Waxpole, II. 67. Charles Townshend would have sent three thousand regulars with three hundred thousand pounds, to New Englandi., 365. Egmont interceded to protect America from this new grievance of military law; but Charles Townshend defended the measure, and, turning to Lord Egmont, exclaimed, Take the poor American by thnceived, would yield a very large sum. Huske, an American, writing under the patronage of Charles Townshend, urged a reform in the colonial administration, and moderate taxation by parliament, as fr
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