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n from the battle-field on the evening of the 6th. comparison drawn by Mr. Davis between General A. S. Johnston and Marshal Turenne. VII. General Beauregard's opinion as to the fighting of the Confederates during the battle of the 7th. VIII. corper, we think, to direct attention to the comparison, drawn by Mr. Davis, between General Albert Sidney Johnston and Marshal Turenne, with reference to the battle of Shiloh. Says Mr. Davis: Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, vol. II. p. 68. To take an example far from us, in time and place, when Turenne had, after months of successful manoeuvring, finally forced his enemy into a position which gave assurance of victory, and had marshalled his forces for a decisive battle, hem a junction there, and fight the battle of Shiloh, not after months of successful manoeuvring, as was the case with Marshal Turenne, but, on the contrary, after months of irreparable disasters, which had brought the country to the brink of despair,
is a picturesque and venerable castle,--with five round towers, a moat, a drawbridge, an arched gateway, ivy-clad walls, and a large court-yard within,--embosomed in trees, except on one side, where a beautiful lawn spreads its verdure. Every thing speaks to us. The castle itself is of immemorial antiquity,--supposed to have been built in the earliest days of the French monarchy, as far back as Louis le Gros. It had been tenanted by princes of Lorraine, and been battered by the cannon of Turenne, one of whose balls penetrated its thick masonry. The ivy, so luxuriantly mantling the gate with the tower by its side, was planted by the eminent British statesman Charles Fox, on a visit during the brief peace of Amiens. The park owed much of its beauty to Lafayette himself. The situation harmonized with the retired habits which found shelter there from the storms of fortune. During his long absence from the Senate and the country, the impending crisis to which he had so distinctly
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Atlantic Essays, Mademoiselle's campaigns. (search)
anging sides a hundred times in a week, is fixed at last. Turenne is arrayed against him. The young, the brave, the beautifuas intriguing at Liege again. The Duchesse de Bouillon, Turenne's sister, purer than those we have named, but not less darations hung trembling in the balance, the royal army under Turenne advancing on Paris, and almost arrived at the city of Orle battle of the Porte St. Antoine was at hand. Conde and Turenne! The two greatest names in the history of European wars, and following it; passionate, false, unscrupulous, mean. Turenne, the precursor of Wellington rather, simple, honest, truthd, for eight hours. Did you see Conde himself? they asked Turenne, after it was over. I saw not one, but a dozen Conde, wasaw fresh cavalry and artillery detached to aid the army of Turenne. He odds were already enormous, and there was but one couas she had already yielded to Holland and England the sea; Turenne fell at Sassbach, Conde sheathed his sword at Chantilly; B
William Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, chapter 4 (search)
. The second project, that of making a counter-move on Richmond, would have been correct and at the same time very bold and brilliant. Such an operation has several illustrious precedents, of which one of the best known and most striking is Turenne's counter to Montecuculi in 1675. Montecuculi, commanding the Imperial army, after a series of beautiful manoeuvres, began to cross the Rhine at Strasburg for the purpose of falling upon the French force; but Turenne, nothing disconcerted, thrTurenne, nothing disconcerted, threw a bridge over the river three miles below Strasburg, and, transferring his whole army to German ground, compelled Montecuculi to make a hasty return. There is little doubt that a direct march of the whole army on Richmond on the morning of the 27th, would have had the effect to recall Lee to the defence of his own communications and the Confederate capital, which was defended by only twenty-five thousand men. General Magruder, who had command of the Confederate forces on the right bank o
William Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, chapter 6 (search)
s generalin-chief. Here his ability to plan campaigns and form large strategic combinations, which was remarkable, would have had full scope; and he would have been considerate and helpful to those in the field. But his power as a tactician was much inferior to his talent as a strategist, and he executed less boldly than he conceived: not appearing to know well those counters with which a commander must work-time, place, and circumstance. Yet he was improving in this regard, and was like Turenne, of whom Napoleon said that he was the only example of a general who grew bolder as he grew older. To General McClellan personally it was a misfortune that he became so prominent a figure at the commencement of the contest; for it was inevitable that the first leaders should be sacrificed to the nation's ignorance of war. Taking this into account, estimating both what he accomplished and what he failed to accomplish, in the actual circumstances of his performance, I have endeavored in t
William Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, chapter 11 (search)
e to an attack in front, in every case where, by this means, a position may be carried. This principle in military art is too well established to require that it should be fortified by authority; but Napoleon, in a criticism on the conduct of Turenne in the campaign of 1655, sets forth the action of that general in a statement of principles so different from those followed by General Grant, that I cannot avoid citing it here. Turenne, says he, constantly observed the two maxims: 1st, Never Turenne, says he, constantly observed the two maxims: 1st, Never attack a position in front, when you can obtain it by turning it; 2d, Avoid doing what the enemy wishes, and that simply because he does wish it. Shun the field of battle which he has reconnoitred and stud ied, and more particularly that in which he has fortified and intrenched himself.—Montholon and Gourgaud: Memoirs of Napoleon, vol. III., p. 95. Moreover, this was the means by which, eventually, after a heavy waste of life, the enemy was dislodged from these lines. It results that such ass
William Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, chapter 12 (search)
was not stayed until he reached the lower passes of the Blue Ridge, whither he retired with a loss of half his army. Sheridan, after pushing the pursuit as far as Staunton, and operating destructively against the Virginia Central Railroad, returned and took position behind Cedar Creek near Strasburg. Previously to abandoning the country south of Strasburg, it was laid waste by the destruction of all barns, grain, forage, farming implements, and mills. The desolation of the Palatinate by Turenne was not more complete. General Sheridan's dispatch reciting the destruction of the Shenandoah Valley is in the following words: In moving back to this point, the whole country, from the Blue Ridge to the North Mountain, has been made entirely untenable for a rebel army. I have destroyed over two thousand barns filled with wheat and hay and farming implements; over seventy mills filled with flour and wheat; have driven in front of the army over four thousand head of stock, and have kille
William Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, Index. (search)
Commissariat. Sumner, General, in command of pursuit of Johnston, 112; at battle of Williamsburg, 118; at battle of Savage's Station, 156; report on his desire to occupy Fredericksburg, 234; on the morale of the army, 256. Three months campaign, the, in 1861, 26. Tucker, Mr., Assistant Secretary of War, directed, with General Mc-Clellan, the transportation to the Peninsula, 100. Turner's Gap, McClellan's right and centre at, 202; the Confederate force at, 202; battle of, 203. Turenne's counter to Montecuculi in 1675, 147. Twiss on justifiable desolations by armies, 560. Valley of Humiliation, the Shenandoah Valley called, 318. Virginia, her vote to secede, 13; the theatre of the war, 13, 15, 18; river and mountain defensive systems of, 19; preparations for war—--Governor Letcher's call for, 26; first entered by the Federal army (for further—see Manassas and subsequent campaigns), 30; winter operations, difficulties of, 73; see also West Virginia. Wadsworth,
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans), Biographical: officers of civil and military organizations. (search)
e. He served a term in Congress from the Richmond district of Virginia. He was selected as one of the pall-bearers at the funeral of General Grant, and later at the funeral of General Sherman, his old antagonist. He died in Washington City on March 21, 1891. His military reputation has constantly grown as it has been closely studied. Grant and Sherman are said to have reckoned him as the ablest general of the South. Colonel Chesney, the eminent English military writer, classes him with Turenne, and Lord Wolseley has expressed himself hardly less strongly. Lee, Jacksdn and Johnston will ever rank as the great triumvirate of Virginians, who were by general consensus of opinion the greatest military leaders of the South. His services during the Civil war were related by him in his work called Johnston's Narrative, which he published in 1874. A less technical and briefer account is contained in the biography written at his request by his grand-nephew, Robert M. Hughes, and publish
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 18. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), chapter 4 (search)
termine the issue of the campaign. In the act to win the rich prize of his strategy he was stricken down at the head of his columns at Seven Pines by two severe wounds—always, like Hannibal, the first to go into battle and the last to come out. Campaign against Sherman. But his campaign against Sherman will furnish the imperishable justification of his fame. The most brilliant military critic of our time, the English officer, Chesney, has declared that it places him by the side of Turenne in the roll of the world's great generals. Those who followed Robert Lee in what was perhaps the grandest of his campaigns, the campaign of 1864, will understand the greatness of Johnston's leadership when they consider how nearly Lee's campaign resembled in method and results Johnston's fighting march from Dalton to Atlanta. But there was this striking difference. When Lee reached Richmond and Petersburg, his adversary gained possession of a better base and a shorter line of communicati
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