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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 5: Tactics.The twelve orders of battle, with examples of each.—Different Formations of infantry, cavalry, artillery, and engineers on the field of battle, with the Modes of bringing troops into action (search)
dvantages gained by the strong point. Moreover, the reinforced part of the line will not be able to profit by its success by taking the enemy's line in flank and rear, without endangering its connection with the rest of the line. (Figure 17) represents the parallel order reinforced on the centre. The same remarks are applicable to this as to the preceding. These two orders were frequently used by the ancients; as at the battle of Zama, for example; and sometimes by modern generals. Turenne employed one of them at Ensheim. (Figure 18) is the simple oblique order. (Figure 19) is the oblique order, with the attacking wing reinforced. This last is better suited for an inferior army in attacking a superior, for it enables it to carry the mass of its force on a single point of the enemy's line, while the weak wing is not only out of reach of immediate attack, but also holds the remainder of the enemy's line in check by acting as a reserve ready to be concentrated on the favo
d slung across the back when the men are on foot. Cavalry of all descriptions should be furnished with fire-arms, and should know how to manoeuvre on foot. Three thousand light cavalry, or three thousand cuirassiers, should not suffer themselves to be stopped by a thousand infantry posted in a wood, or on ground impracticable to cavalry; and three thousand dragoons ought not to hesitate to attack two thousand infantry, should the latter, favored by their position, attempt to stop them. Turenne, Prince Eugene of Savoy, and Vendome, attached great importance to dragoons, and used them successfully. The dragoons gained great glory in Italy, in 1796 and 1797. In Egypt and in Spain, during the campaigns of 1806 and 1807, a degree of prejudice sprung up against them. The divisions of dragoons had been mustered at Compiegne and Amiens, to be embarked without horses for the expedition of England, in order to serve on foot until they should be mounted in that country. General Baraguay
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 11: army organization.—Artillery.—Its history and organization, with a brief Notice of the different kinds of Ordnance, the Manufacture of Projectiles, &c. (search)
character of artillery, but also gave to it great development as an arm of service. At the battle of Breetenfield he had one hundred pieces of artillery, great and small, and at the camp of Nuremberg he numbered about three hundred. This king also made a more skilful use of his cannon by uniting them more in mass than had been done by his predecessors; his system was nevertheless very imperfect. In the disposition of this arm on the field of battle, a vast improvement was made by Conde, Turenne, and Prince Eugene of Savoy. Frederick the Great also made great use of this arm, and was the first to introduce horse artillery. This mode of using field-pieces has peculiar properties which in many circumstances render it an invaluable arm. The promptness and rapidity of its movements enable it to act with other troops without embarrassing them. The French soon introduced into their army the improvements made by the king of Prussia, and in 1763 the celebrated Gribeauval appeared. He i
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 15: military Education—Military schools of France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, England, &c.—Washington's reasons for establishing the West point Academy.—Rules of appointment and Promotion in foreign Services.—Absurdity and injustice of our own system. (search)
France, and at forty-nine gained the celebrated victory of Fontenoy. He died at the age of fifty-four. Vauban entered the army of Conde as a cadet at the age of seventeen, at twenty was made a lieutenant, at twenty-four he commanded two companies, at forty-one was a brigadier, at forty-three a marechal-de-camp, and at forty-five commissaire-general of all the fortifications of France. At the age of twenty-five he had himself conducted several sieges, and had assisted at many others. Turenne entered the army before the age of fourteen; he served one year as a volunteer, four years as a captain, four years as a colonel, three years as a major-general, five years as a lieutenant-general, and became a marshal of France at thirty-two. He had won all his military reputation by the age of forty. Prince Maurice commanded an army at the age of sixteen, and acquired his military reputation in very early life. He died at fifty-eight. The great Conde immortalized his name at the b
General Joseph E. Johnston, Narrative of Military Operations During the Civil War, Report of Hon. L. T. Wigfall in the Senate of the Confederate States, march 18, 1865. (search)
se is simply to correct errors into which, in my judgment, he has fallen as to General Johnston's, and to do this General Hood has rendered it necessary to consider somewhat the operations around Atlanta. If he did, as he supposes, really commit no blunder, he is probably the only general, living or dead, who can claim such good fortune. Napier says: The greatest masters of the art may err; he who wars walks in a mist, through which the keenest eyes cannot always discern the right path. Turenne exclaims: Speak to me of a general who has made no mistakes in war, and you speak of one who has seldom made war. General Hood charges as a fault that General Johnston abandoned territory which he ought to have defended. Similar objections were made by the King of Spain to Soult's plan of the campaign of Talavcea, to which the Duke of Dalmatia replied: Under present circumstances, we cannot avoid the sacrifices of some territory. . . . This will not be distressing as it may appear, beca
in the problems of the campaign—a factor that European writers and critics seem rarely to take into account. From the days of the Roman Empire, Italy, France, Switzerland, and even England were seamed with admirable highways. The campaigns of Turenne, of Frederick the Great, of Napoleon were planned and marched over the best of roads, firm and hard, high and dry. The campaigns of Grant, Lee, Sherman, Johnston, Sheridan, Stuart, Thomas, Hood, Hooker, Burnside, and Jackson were ploughed at timndered; there were flimsy bridges forever being fired or flooded; scrap-iron railways that could be wrecked in an hour and rebuilt only with infinite pains and labor and vast expenditure of time and money. Just what Frederick, or Napoleon, or Turenne would have done with the best of armies, but on the worst of roads, with American woods and weather to deal with, is a military problem that would baffle the critics of all Christendom. It is something for the American people to remember that w
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 2. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), chapter 6.34 (search)
ge and endurance, desirous, above all, that truth, so far as we can attain it now, shall be spoken with soldierly bluntness, and error be not perpetuated. And at the very outset, it is not only pertinent, but essential to a proper appreciation of the conduct of affairs, that we should consider the morale of the two armies as they prepared to move into those vast lines of circumvallation and contravallation, destined to become more famous than Torres Vedras or those drawn by the genius of Turenne in the great wars of the Palatinate. The more so, that the most distinguished of Lee's foreign critics has declared that from the moment Grant sat down before the lines of Richmond, the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia saw that the inevitable blow might be delayed, but could not be averted. Colonel Chesney--Essays in Military Biography, p. 119. Other writers, with mawkish affectation of humanity, little allied to sound military judgment, have gone still further, and asserted t
ucated and richly endowed soldier, his varied experience embraced also civil affairs, and his intimate knowledge of the country and people of the Southwest so highly qualified him for that special command that it was not possible to fill the place made vacant by his death. Not for the first time did the fate of an army depend upon a single man, and the fortunes of a country hang, as in a balance, on the achievements of a single army. To take an example far from us, in time and place, when Turenne had, after months of successful manoeuvring, finally forced his enemy into a position which gave assurance of victory, and had marshaled his forces for a decisive battle, he was, when making a preliminary reconnaissance, killed by a chance shot; then his successor, instead of attacking, retreated, and all which the one had gained for France, the other lost. To take another example, not quite so conclusive, it was epigrammatically said by Lieutenant Kingsbury, when writing of the battle o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Count de 1620- (search)
Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Count de 1620- Colonial governor; born in France in 1620; was made a colonel at seventeen years of age, and was an eminent lieutenant-gen- eral at twenty-nine, covered with decorations and scars. Selected by Marshal Turenne to lead troops sent for the relief of Canada, he was made governor of that province in 1672, and built Fort Frontenac (now Kingston), at the foot of Lake Ontario in 1673. He was recalled in 1682, but was reappointed in 1689, when the French dominions in America were on the brink of ruin. With great energy he carried on war against the English in New York and New England, and their allies, the Iroquois. Early in 1696 an expedition which he sent towards Albany desolated Schenectady; and the same year he successfully resisted a land and naval force sent against Canada. He was in Montreal when an Indian runner told him of the approach to the St. Lawrence of Colonel Schuyler (see King William's War). Frontenac, then seventy years of
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Webster, Daniel 1782-1852 (search)
Here would ensue a pause; for they say that a certain stillness precedes the tempest. Before this military array should fall on the custom-house, collector, clerks, and all, it is very probable some of those composing it would request of their gallant commander-in-chief to be informed a little upon the point of law; for they have doubtless a just respect for his opinion as a lawyer, as well as for his bravery as a soldier. They know he has read Blackstone and the Constitution, as well as Turenne and Vauban. They would ask him, therefore, something concerning their rights in this matter. They would inquire whether it was not somewhat dangerous to resist a law of the United States. What would be the nature of their offence, they would wish to learn, if they, by military force and array, resisted the execution in Carolina of a law of the United States and it should turn out after all that the law was constitutional. He would answer, of course, treason. No lawyer could give any ot
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