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dence. It has but one course to take, wrote Vergennes before his treaty with Spain, and that is tof nations? The fishery on the high seas, so Vergennes expounded the law of nations, is as free as no pretension whatever to share in them. Vergennes to Luzerne, 25 Sept., 1779. But they hade, a perpetual joint property. Against this Vergennes argued that the conquest had been made for tbreaking out of the revolution, Gerard to Vergennes, 28 Jan., 1779, and compare Ibid., 19 Sept.,th America. The demand was for no more than Vergennes confessed to belong to them by the law of na secede from the confederation; Gerard to Vergennes, 14 July, 1779. and they read the sketch of congress and two other members Gerard to Vergennes, 14 July, 1779. equally well disposed to hiswithout a convention with them. Gerard to Vergennes, 14 July, 1779. The interview lasted frod envoy to Spain. The civil letter in which Vergennes bade farewell to John Adams on his retiring [1 more...]
n France, Frederic sent word to Maurepas and Vergennes: All the pains which the king of England mayin name an ally, in fact a rival. Compare Vergennes to Montmorin, 21 Sept., 1779. maison d'autr descent on England without regard to risk. Vergennes, on the other hand, held the landing of a F them to the west. Montmorin had written to Vergennes: I hope the Spanish marine will fight well; ndent government like that of America, wrote Vergennes, I would not count upon the Catholics, altho that of the United Provinces of America. Vergennes to Montmorin, 29 April, 1779. It is not easy have success as in America. Montmorin to Vergennes, 11 June, 1779. The emissary selected in Sparoude's The English in Ireland, II. 176. Vergennes learned from his agent as well as from othevasion. The movements of the Irish, wrote Vergennes towards the close of the year, are those of do than tranquilly to watch the movement. Vergennes to Montmorin, 13 Nov. and 17 Dec., 1779. [2 more...]
and used to say, my neighbor and I. Garier to Vergennes, 26 July, 1776. In the American war the Dutch he proposal was put aside by the grand pensionary, Vergennes asked no more than that the Netherlands in the comf its colonies in America. Besides, the Dutch, as Vergennes observed, will find in their own history an apolog they severally demanded of England explanations. Vergennes seized the opportunity to fix the attention of Count Panin. Vergennes to Corberon, 22 Nov., 1778, and 6 Dec., 1778. The empress, so he wrote towards the end oia, every displeasure was removed from the mind of Vergennes, and his answer to the Russian note drew from Couno engagement with England whatever. Corberon to Vergennes, 28 May, 1779. The oppressed maritime powers cressing. Frederic to Goltz, 14 March, 1780. Vergennes read the letter of Frederic, and by a courier desphe system of neutrality which she has embraced. Vergennes to Montmorin, 27 March, 1780. The letter of Freder
they are unique. The despatches of the French envoys at Philadelphia to their government contain the most complete reports which exist of the discussions in congress from 1778 to the adoption of the constitution in 1789. Congress sat, it is true, with closed doors; but the French ministers knew how to obtain information on every proceeding that interested their country. In August, 1778, soon after the reception at Philadelphia of Chap. XVII.} 1778. an envoy from France, he reported to Vergennes The states of the south and of the north under existing subjects of division and estrangement, are two distinct parties, which at present count but few deserters. The division is attributed to moral and philosophical causes. He further reported that the cabal against Washington found supporters exclusively in the north. The French minister desired to repress the ambition of congress for the acquisition of territory, because it might prove an obstacle to connection with Spain; and he f
nd a lieutenant. From Elizabethtown Point the fruitless expedition crossed to Staten Island by a bridge of boats, which at midnight was taken away. Clinton was never again to have so good an opportunity for offensive operations as that which he had now rejected. On the return of d'estaing from America, he urged the French ministry to send twelve thousand men to the United States, as the best way of pursuing the war actively; and Lafayette had of his own motion given the like advice to Vergennes, with whom he had formed relations of friendship. The cabinet adopted the measure in its principle, but vacillated as to the number of the French contingent. For the command Count de Rochambeau was selected, not by court favor, but from the consideration in which he was held by the troops. Goltz to Frederic, 3 March, 1780. On the tenth of July, Admiral de Ternay with a squadron of ten Chap. XVIII.} 1780. July 10. ships of war, three of them ships of the line, convoyed the detachment
or had, under the seal of the commonwealth, notified the French minister at Philadelphia of the act. On this procedure, Vergennes in September instructed the French minister at Phil- Sept. adelphia in these words: During the war it is essential botay every state will be found separately connected with us, whatever may be the fortune of the general confederation. Vergennes to Luzerne, 27 Sept., 1779. Maryland was the only other state to take notice of treaties, and it did no more than ahe officers of the staff it returned to salaries instead of commissions. Gerard, in reporting the cost of the war to Vergennes, writes: L'Intendant de l'arinee ou quartier-maitre General a cinq % sur totes ses depenses, et ses agens ont autant. casion to contract. To Franklin he wrote in the same strain; and Lafayette addressed a like memorial of ripe wisdom to Vergennes. While the United States thus importuned a foreign prince for help, their people, in proportion to numbers, was rich
of Orange. I am as much attached to that family as a man can be, wrote Stormont; but he would not let any sentiments of veneration and attachment bias his opinion or retard extreme measures. Ibid., 19 Sept., 1780. The commissioners for the Netherlands found in Panin a statesman who regarded the independence of America as a result very advantageous for all nations and especially for Russia, and who did not doubt that England would be forced to recognise it. The Marquis de Verac to Vergennes, 1 Sept., 1780. He could not grant the wished — for guarantee of the Dutch possessions in America, at the Cape of Good Hope, and in India; but in the course of September he drafted the Sept. convention which he held to be the only possible one between Russia and the republic. Ibid., 12 Sept., 1780. The draft did not include a general guarantee; but, if the republic should be attacked on account of the convention, the other powers were to take her part. A separate article declared the
need of peace. 1780, 1781. England, said Vergennes, has declared war Chap. XXI.} 1780. againstthing for a single campaign. Montmorin to Vergennes, 13 May, 1780. The invasion of England havinEngland. With regard to the United States, Vergennes always maintained that Chap. XXI.} 1780. Frthem up to helpless anarchy. Montmorin to Vergennes, 22 Feb., 1780. He would not receive Jay as ng to their own judgments and inclinations. Vergennes broke off correspondence with him, as not beweakness. I will express no opinion, said Vergennes, of Necker, in January, 1781, on his financi1781. The negotiations for peace belonged to Vergennes, and for their success he needed mediation oea. There are none but the mediators, wrote Vergennes, who could make to the United States so grie the independence of the thirteen states. Vergennes to Luzerne, 1 Feb., 1781. Kaunitz, accordingeace congress at Vienna, adopted the idea of Vergennes that the United States should be represented[11 more...]
and the close, stiff branches of the stubborn trees made the cavalry useless. Colonel Washington himself, after his glorious share in the campaign, at the last moment of this last encounter, was wounded, disabled, and taken prisoner. So there were at Eutaw two successive engagements. In the first, Greene won brilliantly and with little loss; in the second, he sustained a defeat, with the death or capture of many of his bravest men. C'est une grande science de savoir s'arreter à temps. Vergennes to Lafayette, 1 Oct., 1781, commenting on the events of the day. In the two engagements, the Americans lost in killed, wounded, and missing, five hundred and fifty-four men; they took five hundred prisoners, including the wounded; and the total loss of the British approached one thousand. The cause of the United States was the cause of Ireland. Among the fruits of the battles of the former was the recovery for the latter of her equal rights in trade and legislation. Yet such is the sad
parated by five hundred miles from every other corps and without any resources, I am to oppose the projects of the court of St. James and the fortunes of Lord Cornwallis. Thus far we have encountered no disaster. On the same day, his words to Vergennes were: In pursuance of the immense plan of his court, Lord Cornwallis left the two Carolinas exposed, and General Greene has largely profited by it. Lord Cornwallis has left to us Portsmouth, from which place he was in communication with Carolinount de Maurepas were running out; but he could still recognise de Lauzun, and the tidings threw a halo round his death-bed. The joy at court penetrated the whole people, and the name of Lafayette was pronounced with veneration. History, said Vergennes, offers few examples of a success so complete. All the wild agree, wrote Franklin to Washington, that no expedition was ever better planned or better executed. It brightens the glory that must accompany your name to the latest posterity. T
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