n years before the Declaration of Independence.
Little could he comprehend the value of freedom, such the Americans were then about to struggle for, in the development of every department of the fine arts, of which Dean Berkeley had a prophetic glimpse when he wrote:
There shall be sung another Golden Age, The rise of empires and of arts, The good and great, inspiring epic rage, The wisest heads and noblest hearts.
The first painter who found his way to America professionally was John Watson, a Scotchman, who was born in 1685.
He began the practice of his art at Perth Amboy, then the capital of New Jersey, in 1715, where he purchased land and built houses.
He died at an old age. John Smybert (q. v.) came with Dean Berkeley in 1728, and began portrait-painting in Newport, R. I. Nathan Smybert, an amiable youth, began the practice of painting, but died young in 1757.
During John Smybert's time there were Blackburn in Boston and Williams of Philadelphia who painted portraits
New York Eye and Ear Infirmary founded1820
Pennsylvania Eye and Ear Infirmary, Philadelphia, founded1822
Benjamin W. Dudley, founder of the medical department, University of Transylvania, Lexington, Ky., trephines the skull for epilepsy, probably the first instance in the United States1828
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, founded1829
Dispensatory of the United States of America, first published by Franklin Bache and George B. Wood1833
Oesophagotomy first performed by John Watson, of New York; case reported1844
Water-cures introduced into the United States by R. T. Trall, who opened a hydropathic institute in New York in 1844, and Joel Shew, at Lebanon Springs, N. Y.1845
Left subclavian artery tied by J. Kearney Rodgers1846
Collodion first applied to surgical purposes by J. Parker Maynard in Boston1847
Elizabeth Blackwell graduated M. D. at the medical school of Geneva, N. Y. (the first woman in the United States）Jan., 1849
First excision of the hip-joint in