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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Armstrong, John, 1758-1843 (search)
rthwestern Territory, but he declined. Two years later he married a sister of Chancellor Livingston, removed to New York, purchased a farm within the precincts of the old Livingston Manor on the Hudson, and devoted himself to agriculture. He was a member of the national Senate from 1800 to 1804, and became United States minister at the French Court in the latter year, succeeding his brother-in-law, Chancellor Livingston. He was commissioned a brigadier-general in July, 1812, and in January, 1813, became Secretary of War in the cabinet of President Madison. His lack of success in the operations against Canada, and at the attack upon and capture of Washington in 1814, made him so unpopular that he resigned and retired to private life. He died at Red Hook. N. Y., April 1, 1843. General Armstrong wrote Notes on the War of 1812, and Lives of Generals Montgomery and Wayne for Sparks's American biography; also a Review of Wilkinson's memoirs, and treatises on agriculture and gardening.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Brandywine, battle on the. (search)
, leaving all their baggage — even their knapsacks — with the other division. The latter moved for Chad's Ford a few hours later in a dense fog. Washington's left wing, composed of the brigades of Muhlenberg and Weedon, of Greene's division, and Wayne's division with Proctor's artillery, were on the hill east of Chad's Ford. The brigades of Sullivan, Stirling, and Stephen, composing the right wing, extended along the Brandywine Creek to a point above the forks; and 1,000 Pennsylvania militia cannonade, checked their pursuers; and at a narrow defile the regiments of Stephen and Stewart held the British back until night, when the latter encamped. In the mean time, Knyphausen had crossed at Chad's Ford and attacked the left wing under Wayne. After a gallant fight, the latter, seeing the British gaining his rear, abandoned his cannon and munitions of war and made a disorderly retreat behind the division of Greene. At twilight there was a skirmish near Dilworth between Maxwell and h
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Butler, Thomas, 1754-1805 (search)
Butler, Thomas, 1754-1805 Military officer: born in Pennsylvania in 1754; was in almost every important battle in the Middle States during the Revolution. At Brandy-wine and at Monmouth he received the thanks of his commanders (Washington and Wayne) for skill and bravery. In 1791 he commanded a battalion under St. Clair, and was twice wounded at the defeat of that leader, where his brother Richard was killed. He died in New Orleans Sept. 7, 1805.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chippewa Indians, (search)
he head-waters of the Mississippi and from the Red River of the North. The French established missionaries among them, and the Chippewas were the firm friends of these Europeans until the conquest of Canada ended French dominion in America. In 1712 they aided the French in repelling an attack of the Foxes on Detroit. In Pontiac's conspiracy (see Pontiac) they were his confederates; and they sided with the British in the war of the Revolution and of 1812. Joining the Miamis, they fought Wayne and were defeated, and subscribed to the treaty at Greenville in 1795. In 1816 they took part in the pacification of the Northwestern tribes, and in 1817 they gave up all their lands in Ohio. At that time they occupied a vast and undefined territory from Mackinaw along the line of Lake Superior to the Mississippi River. The limits of this territory were defined by a treaty in 1825, lands to the United States for equivalent annuities. All but a few bands had gone west of the Mississippi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Greenville, treaty at. (search)
Greenville, treaty at. After the successful campaigns of Gen. Anthony Wayne against the Northwestern Indian tribes in 1793-94, his army lay in winter quarters in Greenville, Darke co., O., and there, on Aug. 3, 1795, he concluded a treaty with several of the tribes—namely, Wyandottes, Delawares, Shawnees, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians, Weas, Piankshaws, Kickapoos, and Kaskaskias. There were 1,130 Indian participants in making the treaty. The principal chiefs present were Tarhe, Buckhongehelas, Black Hoof, Blue Jacket, and Little Turtle. The basis of the treaty was that hostilities should permanently cease and all prisoners be restored. The boundary-line between the United States and the lands of the several tribes was fixe
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Grey, Charles, Earl 1729- (search)
Grey, Charles, Earl 1729- Military officer; born in England Oct. 23, 1729; was aidede-camp to Wolfe, at Quebec, in 1759; was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in 1761; and, as colonel, accompanied General Howe to Boston in 1775, who gave him the rank of major-general. He led the party that surprised General Wayne in the night. He was an active commander in the battle of Germantown (q. v.) and as a marauder on the New England coast in the fall of 1778. He surprised and cut in pieces Baylor's dragoons at Tappan. For these and other services in America he was made a lieutenant-general in 1783. He became a general in 1795; was elevated to the peerage in 1801; and was the father of the celebrated English statesman of the same name. He died Nov. 14, 1807.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Harmar, Josiah 1753-1813 (search)
aty of peace. He was made Indian agent for the territory northwest of the Ohio, and in 1787 Congress made him a brevet brigadier-general. On Sept. 29, 1789, he was appointed commander-inchief of the army of the United States, and had charge of an expedition against the Miami Indians in the fall of 1790, but was defeated. Harmar resigned his commission in January, 1792, and was made adjutant-general of Pennsylvania in 1793, in which post he was active in furnishing Pennsylvania troops for Wayne's campaign in 1793-94. He died in Philadelphia, Aug. 20, 1813. At the time of his expedition against the Indians, the British, in violation of the treaty of 1783, still held Detroit and ether Western military posts. British agents instigated the Indians of the Northwest to make war on the frontier settlers, in order to secure for British commerce the monopoly of the fur-trade. This had been kept up ever since 1783, and the posts were held with a hope that the league of States would fal
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Harrison, William Henry 1773-1812 (search)
Harrison, William Henry 1773-1812 Ninth President of the United States; in 1841; Whig; born in Berkeley, Charles City co., Va., Feb. 9, 1773; was a son of Benjamin Harrison, governor of Virginia, and was educated at Hampden-Sidney College. He began preparations for the profession of medicine, but soon abandoned it for a military life. In 1791 Washington commissioned him an ensign. Made a lieutenant in 1792, he afterwards became an efficient aide to General Wayne, and with him went through the campaign in Ohio, in 1794. After the treaty of Greenville (1794), he was placed in command of Fort Washington, on the site of Cincinnati, and was promoted to captain. While on duty at North Bend, he was married to Anna, daughter of Judge Symmes, an extensive land-owner there. In 1797 he was appointed secretary of the Northwest Territory, and left the army. In 1799 he became a delegate to Congress, and was made the first governor of Indian Territory in 1801. That office he held until
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Imperialism. (search)
y were brought to terms in a treaty. The battle at Miami Village, Sept. 30, 1790, between about 1,800 Americans under General Harmar, and a somewhat larger body of Indians under various chiefs, resulted in a victory for the Indians, with a loss of 120 men killed and 300 wigwams burned. Another pitched battle was fought near the same place the next year. The Indians were again victorious, and the American loss was more than half the army— 631 killed and 263 wounded. On Aug. 20, 1794, General Wayne, with 900 United States soldiers, routed the Indians in a battle near Miami Rapids, and a year later a treaty of peace was concluded, by the terms of which nearly the whole of Ohio was ceded by the Indians to the United States. It will be observed that with five years of war we had got no farther west than Ohio. And these battles with the Indians in the Miami Valley were more bloody than any ever fought by American armies with white men. This long and bloody Indian war did not end
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Indiana, (search)
nary station as early as 1700. Indiana constituted a part of New France, and afterwards of the Northwest Territory. In 1702 some French Canadians discovered the Wabash, and established several trading-posts on its banks, among others, Vincennes. Little is known of the early settlers until the country was ceded to the English, in 1763. The treaty of 1783 included Indiana in the United States. A distressing Indian war broke out in 1788, but by victories by General Wilkinson (1791) and General Wayne (1794), a dangerous confederacy of the tribes was broken up. Another was afterwards attempted by Tecumseh, but was defeated by the result of the battle of Tippecanoe. In 1800 the Connecticut Reserve, in the northwestern portion of Ohio, having State seal of Indiana. been sold to a company of speculators, measures were taken to extinguish certain claims on the part of the United States and the State of Connecticut. The speculators found their bargain to be pecuniarily unprofitable,
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