ly from cold in winter, for they were allowed only one blanket each, and these in time became ragged, filthy, and filled with vermin.
Turner, a lieutenant of General Winder, the commissary of prisoners, seemed to make cruelty his study.
He ordered that no one should go within 3 feet of a window.
A violation of the rule gave liccted for the pen was covered with pine-trees.
These were cut down.
When some one suggested that the shade would alleviate the sufferings of the prisoners, Capt. M. S. Winder, son of the commissary of prisoners at Richmond, declared that they were to be intentionally deprived of that comfort.
The pen was a quadrangle, with two rng, with an allowance of space for each body of not more than 12 inches in width, and then covered with earth.
Henry Wirz, a Swiss by birth, was appointed by General Winder as superintendent of the prison and prisoners.
In the summer of 1865 he was tried on numerous charges of the most horrid cruelties towards the prisoners at A
They arrived on the morning of Oct. 8 (1812), and Elliott at once conceived a plan for their capture.
Timely aid offered.
The same day a detachment of unarmed seamen arrived from New York.
Elliott turned to the military for assistance.
Lieutenant-Colonel Scott was then at Black Rock, and entered warmly into Elliott's plans.
General Smyth, the commanding officer, favored them.
Captain Towson, of the artillery, was detailed, with fifty men, for the service; and sailors under General Winder, at Buffalo, were ordered out, well armed.
Several citizens joined the expedition, and the whole number, rank and file, was about 124 men. Two large boats were taken to the mouth of Buffalo Creek, and in these the expedition embarked at midnight. At one o'clock in the morning (Oct. 9) they left the creek, while scores of people watched anxiously on the shore for the result.
The sharp crack of a pistol, the roll of musketry, followed by silence, and the moving of two dark objects down t
short of his antagonist and were harmless.
The garrison was composed of two companies of sea fencibles, under Captains Bunbury and Addison; two companies of volunteers from the city of Baltimore, under the command of Captains Berry and Pennington; a company of United States artillery, under Captain Evans; a company of volunteer artillerists, led by Judge Joseph H. Nicholson; a detachment of Barney's flotilla, under Lieutenant Redman, and detachments of regulars, 600 strong, furnished by General Winder, and under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart and Major Lane.
Ruins of battery at Fort McHenry. was exposed to a tremendous shower of shells for several hours, without the power to inflict injury in turn, or even to check the fury of the assault; yet they endured the trial with cool courage and great fortitude.
At length a bomb-shell dismounted a 24-pounder in the fort, killing a lieutenant and wounding several of the men. Admiral Cochrane, observing the confusio
rict of Columbia formed a part there were only a little more than 2,000 effective men, under General Winder, and these were scattered at points some distance from each other.
There was a company of muld be easily driven away.
The folly of this boast was soon made manifest by sad events.
General Winder continually warned the government of danger; and when danger actually appeared he was placen, at the middle of August, a powerful British land and naval force appeared in Chesapeake Bay, Winder had only a handful of men with which to defend the capital.
The call for the militia was tardilssels.
The latter landed a strong force, under General Ross, and pushed on towards Washington.
Winder issued stirring appeals for the militia to turn out, and asked General Smith, of Baltimore, to tthe destruction of his flotilla.
Pressing on towards the capital, they were met by troops under Winder at Bladensburg, when a severe engagement ensued, which resulted in vietory for the invaders.