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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 8 6 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 2 2 Browse Search
Wendell Phillips, Theodore C. Pease, Speeches, Lectures and Letters of Wendell Phillips: Volume 2 2 0 Browse Search
Medford Historical Society Papers, Volume 10. 2 0 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 1 1 Browse Search
Medford Historical Society Papers, Volume 11. 1 1 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Westminster Abbey. (search)
eorge II. Westminster Abbey. The share of America in Westminster Abbey. The following article was written by the Venerable F. W. Farrar, D. D., Archdeacon of Westminster (now Dean of Canterbury): Westminster Abbey is most frequently entered by the great northern door, usually known as Solomon's Porch. I will, however, ask the courteous American visitor to walk through St. Margaret's church-yard, and round the western facade of the Abbey, and to enter by the door under Sir Christopher Wren's towers. Pass through the western door, and pause for a moment Where bubbles burst, and folly's dancing foam Melts if it cross the threshold. Of all the glory of this symbolic architecture, of the awe-inspiring grandeur and beauty of this great minster, which makes us feel at once that They dreamt not of a perishable home Who thus could build, how much may be claimed in part by America? In one sense all of it which belongs to the epoch which elapsed between the age of E
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), William and Mary, College of (search)
1619 to establish a college in Virginia, but the massacre in 1622 put an end to the enterprise. In 1660-61 the General Assembly of Virginia passed an act for the establishment and endowment of a college, and in 1693 a charter was obtained from the crown of England, chiefly through the efforts of Rev. James Blair and of Lieutenant-Governor Nicholson. It was named William and Mary, in compliment to the ruling sovereigns, who made appropriations for its support. Buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren were erected at the Middle Plantation, which was named Williamsburg. The first college edifice was destroyed by fire in 1705 and was rebuilt soon afterwards. The General Assembly and individuals made liberal gifts to the institution from time to time, and in 1776 it was the wealthiest William and Mary College in 1723. college in America. Its riches were wasted during the Revolutionary War, its resources being reduced to $2,500 and the then unproductive revenue granted by the cro
r, 201 feet high. It is said to be built of earthenware and pumice-stone, not of cut stone. It was built in the sixth century. The dome in the Duomo of Florence was built by Brunelleschi in 1417. It is of brick, octagonal in plan, 139 feet in diameter, and 310 feet in hight. The dome of St. Peter's, at Rome, was built at the close of the sixteenth century, from designs left by Michael Angelo. It is 139 feet in diameter, 330 feet high. The dome of St. Paul's, at London, by Sir Christopher Wren, is not masonry, but a shell inclosing the brick cone which supports the lantern. It is 112 feet in diameter, 215 feet high. Internal Diameter.Internal Hight. Mosque of Achmet, Constantinople92120 Duomo at Milan57254 Hall aux Bles, Paris, by Moulineau200150 St. Isaac's, Petersburg96150 Baths of Caracalla112116 The dome of the Capitol, Washington, is 287 feet 11 inches above the base-line of the east front. The greatest diameter of the dome at the springing is 135 feet 5
2. The copperplate roller-press was invented in 1545. Etching on copper by means of aqua-fortis invented by F. Mazzuoli or Parmegiano, A. D. 1532. Mezzotinto engraving invented by De Siegen, 1643; improved by Prince Rupert, 1648; and by Sir Christopher Wren, 1662. Mr. Evelyn showed me most excellent painting in little [miniature]; in distemper, in Indian incke, water-colours : graveing; and, above all, the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. — Pepys's Diary, Nov. 1, 1665. At Gresham College, the Royal Society meeting, Mr. Hooke explained to Mr. Pepys the art of drawing pictures by Prince Rupert's rule and machine and another of Dr. Wren's [Sir Christopher]; but he [Dr. Hooke] says nothing do like squares, or, which is best in the world, like a dark room. — Pepys, Feb. 21, 1666. These devices are apparently for copying; the former is probably on the principle of the pantograph; the squares is a familiar mod
alf-relief, and is a grade between alto-rilievo or high-relief, and basso-rilievo or low-relief. See rilievo. Mez′zo-tint-en-grav′ing. The inventor of this art is believed to have been Colonel Ludwig von Siegen, a lieutenant-colonel in the service of the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel. Portraits executed by him exist, having the date of 1643. Prince Rupert gave so much attention to it, and was so instrumental in bringing it into favor, that he has been credited with the invention. Sir Christopher Wren has also been cited as the inventor, but his claims are antedated by Prince Rupert. Mr. Evelyn showed me the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. — Pepys's Diary, November 1, 1665. The process consists in passing over a plate of steel or copper with an instrument called a cradle, by which a burr is raised over every portion of the plate, which, if filled with ink by the printer, would make a black impression. On <
ry good musique, the first time that I ever remember to have heard the organs and singing men in surplices in my life. The class of native organ-builders having become almost extinct, inducements were offered to foreigners to settle in England. Prominent among these was Schmidt, generally known as Father Smith, who built the instrument referred to by Pepys. Among the instruments of this period was the organ of St. Paul's Cathedral, noted as being the source of much tribulation to Sir Christopher Wren, who considered that the harmony of his designs was spoiled by the box of whistles. This instrument was nearly 30 feet high, 18 wide, and 8 deep. About 1680, the barrel-organ used by itinerant musicians was introduced. The early builders were fond of employing outre materials in their organs, and of decorating them with precious metals and stones, or with grotesque carvings; animals, birds, and angelic figures moved by mechanism were also introduced, the latter playing on the t
imilarly transferred to the paper. The observations are taken through an eye-piece, which may be approached to or receded from the frame, according to the scale of the drawing required. Ronalds's perspective-machine, patented in England, has an eye-piece and an arrangement by which a bead traversing in the plane of delineations is made to confer a corresponding motion upon a pencil. A perspective-instrument for drawing the outlines of any object in perspective was invented by Dr. Christopher Wren, about 1669, and is described in the Abridgment of Phil. Trans., Vol. I. p. 325. Per-spec′to-graph. An instrument for the mechanical drawing of objects in perspective. The object is placed in front of the eye, which is applied to a small hole. A movable hinged bar is so adjusted as to bring a point between the eye and a certain part of the object. The bar is then folded down and the mark transferred to the paper. A series of such marks afford data for the drawing of the obj
ugers; and a professor of medicine of that city wrote, in 1691, a treatise on physics, which explained the mode of boring for water. The first notice of boring in England was not for the purposes of a well, but to ascertain the solidity of the foundation of St. Paul's, a number of crypts and structures having successively stood upon the same spot, and it was difficult to determine how much of the slight eminence was debris and how much reliable for supporting the ponderous building Sir Christopher Wren designed to erect. Toward the end of the last century, the practice of boring was not uncommon in England, and a number of artesian wells were obtained, one especially in London, which was dug and bored 260 feet. Gas from bored wells is now used extensively in and near Pittsburgh, in heating furnaces. See also gas, page 244. The Burns gas-well, on the Duffy farm, 35 miles from Pittsburgh, emits 1,000,000 cubic feet of gas per hour, weighing 58 1/4 tons. The gas is C 4 8 6 o
Wendell Phillips, Theodore C. Pease, Speeches, Lectures and Letters of Wendell Phillips: Volume 2, Theodore Parker (1860). (search)
so much to tell of Michael Angelo, when in the Roman palace Raphael was drawing his figures too small, Angelo sketched a colossal head of fit proportions, and taught Raphael his fault, so Parker criticized these other pulpits, not so much by censure as by creation — by a pulpit, proportioned to the hour, broad as humanity, frank as truth, stern as justice, and loving as Christ. Here is the place to judge him. In St. Paul's Cathedral, the epitaph says, if you would know the genius of Christopher Wren, look around. Do you ask proof how full were the hands, how large the heart, how many-sided the brain of your teacher?--listen, and you will hear it in the glad, triumphant certainty of your enemies that you must close these doors, since his place can never be filled! Do you ask proof of his efficient labor and the good soil into which that seed fell?--gladden your eyes by looking back and seeing for how many months the impulse his vigorous hand gave you has sufficed, spite of boding
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard), Chapter 19: (search)
n Court is not far off, and I wanted very much to see it. . . . . My only object—so to speak—was the cartoons; I walked, therefore, hardly looking to the right or left, through twenty-four rooms lined with pictures of all sorts, good and bad, many blank spaces indicating that some of the better had been sent to Manchester, and at last, through crowds of people,—amounting, I should think, to nearly a thousand, —reached the somewhat ill-lighted room, built expressly for the cartoons by Sir Christopher Wren. They are certainly very grand. I remember the School of Athens and the Sibyls, in the Sistine Chapel, but, after all, I think the Preaching of Paul, and Peter and John at the Beautiful Gate, stand before anything in Rome. Indeed, as I have occasionally—when I was tired of work at the British Museum —gone into the sculpture-gallery, and stood before the works of Phidias there, I have come to the conclusion that these cartoons and the bas-reliefs from the Parthenon are, of all
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