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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 479 BC or search for 479 BC in all documents.

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Ly'cidas (*Luki/dhs), a member of the senate of Five Hundred at Athens, who was stoned to death by his fellow-citizens, because he advised them to listen to the proposals of peace offered by Mardonius in B. C. 479: his wife and children suffered the same fate at the hands of the Athenian women. (Hdt. 9.5.) The same story is related of Cyrsilus at the invasion of Xerxes eleven years before [CYRSILUS]; and both tales probably refer to only one even
etermined on an engagement in spite of the warnings of the soothsayers and the advice of Artabazus, who recommended him to fall back on Thebes, where plenty of provisions had been collected, and t try the effect of Persian gold on the chief men in the several Grecian states; and his resolution of fighting was further confirmed when, the Persian cavalry having taken and choked up the spring on which the Greeks depended for water, lPasanias again decamped and moved with his forces still nearer to Plataea. Mardonius then crossed the river and pursued him. In the battle of Plataea which ensued (September, B. C. 479), he fought bravely in the front of danger with 1000 picked Persians about him, but was slain by Aeimnestus or Arimnestus, a Spartan, and his fall was the signal for a general rout of the barbarians. (Hdt. 6.43-45, 94, 7.5, 9, 82, 8.100, &100.113, &100.133-144, 9.1-4, 12-15, 38-65 ; Plut. Arist. 10-19; Diod. 11.1, 28-31; Just. 2.13, 14; Strab. ix. p.412; C. Nep. Paus. 1.) [E.E]
Mardontes (*Mardo/nths), a Persian nobleman, son of Bagaeus (see Hdt. 3.128), commanded, in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece, the forces from the islands in the Persian gulf. (Hdt. 3.93, 7.80.) On the retreat of Xerxes, he was left behind as one of the admirals of the fleet, and he fell at the battle of Mycale, in B. C. 479. (Hdt. 8.130, 9.102.) [E.
Oeoba'zus 3. A noble Persian, who, when the Greek fleet arrived in the Hellespont after the battle of Mycale (B. C. 479), fled from Cardia to Sestus, as the place of all most strongly fortified. Sestus was besieged by the Athenians under Xanthippus, and, on the famine becoming unendurable, Oeobazus, with most of the Persians, made his escape from the town; but he fell into the hands of the Apsinthian Thracians, and was sacrificed by them to Pleistorus, one of their gods (Her. 9.115, 118, 119). [E.E]
. Reiske; Suidas, s. v. *Pausani/as, &c.) incorrectly call him king (Paus. 3.4.9); he only succeeded his father Cleombrotus in the guardianship of his cousin Pleistarchus, the son of Leonidas, for whom he exercised the functions of royalty from B. C. 479 to the period of his death (Thuc. 1.94, 132; Hdt. 9.10). In B. C. 479, when the Athenians called upon the Lacedaemonians for aid against the Persians, the Spartans, after some delay (on the motives for which Bishop Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vB. C. 479, when the Athenians called upon the Lacedaemonians for aid against the Persians, the Spartans, after some delay (on the motives for which Bishop Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. ii. p. 327, &c., has thrown considerable light), sent a body of five thousand Spartans, each attended by seven Helots, under the command of Pausanias. From Herodotus (9.53) it appears that Euryanax, the son of Dorieus, was associated with him as commander. At the Isth mus Pausanias was joined by the other Peloponnesian allies, and at Eieusis by the Athenians, and forthwith took the command of the combined forces (Thuc. 1.130; Hdt. 8.3; Paus. 3.14.1; the words h(gemoni/a and h(gei=sqai imply
ly after the battle of Marathon. To assume, on the other hand, as Thiersch does, that Pheidias, in the flight to Salamis, succeeded in carrying with him his unfinished statue, with his moulds and implements, and so went on with his work, seems to us a manifest absurdity. We are thus brought to the end of the Persian invasion, when the Athenians found their city in ruins, but obtained, at least in part, the means of restoring it in the spoils which were divided after the battle of Plataeae (B. C. 479). Of that part of the spoil which fell to the share of Athens, a tithe would naturally be set apart for sacred uses, and would be added to the tithe of the spoils of Marathon. Nor is it by any means improbable that this united sacred treasure may have been distinguished as the spoils of Marathon, in commemoration of that one of the great victories over the Persians which had been achieved by the Athenians alone. There is, indeed, a passage in Demosthenes (Parapresb. § 272, ed. Bekk., p. 4
Pleisto'anax (*Pleistoa/nac, *Pleistw/nac), the nineteenth king of Sparta in the line of the Agidae, was the eldest son of the Pausanias who conquered at Plataea in B. C. 479. On the death of Pleistarchus, in B. C. 458, without issue, Pleistoanax succeeded to the throne, being yet a minor, so that in the expedition of the Lacedae-monians in behalf of the Dorians against Phocis, in B. C. 457, his uncle Nicomedes, son of Cleombrotus, commanded for him. (Thuc. 1.107; Diod. 11.79; Paus. 1.13, 3.5.) In B. C. 445 he led in person an invasion into Attica, being however, in consequence of his youth, accompanied by Cleandridas as a counsellor. The premature withdrawal of his army from the enemy's territory exposed both Cleandridas and himself to the suspicion of having been bribed by Pericles, and, according to Plutarch, while Cleandridas fled from Sparta and was condemned to death in his absence, the young king was punished bya heavy fine, which he was unable to pay, and was therefore oblige
with Themistocles, and a good story is told of the skill with which the statesman rebuked the immoderate demands of the poet (Plat. Them. 5; Praecept. Polit. p. 807a.; Reg. et Imp. Apophth. p. 185c.; for another story see Cic. Fin. 2.32). One of his epigrams (No. 197) was written on the occasion of the restoration of the sanctuary of the Lycomidae by Themistocles. Respecting the enmity between Simonides and the poet Timocreon of Rhodes, see Schneidewin, p. xviii. The battle of Plataeae (B. C. 479) furnished Simonides with another subject for an elegy (Fr. 59; comp. Epig. 199), and gave occasion for the celebrated epigram (No. 198), which he composed for Pausanias, who inscribed it on the tripod dedicated by the Greeks at Delphi out of the Persian spoils; but which, on account of its arrogant ascription of all the honour of the victory to Pausanias himself, was erased by the Lacedaemonians, who substituted for it the names of the states which had taken part in the battle (Thuc. 1.1
with Themistocles, and a good story is told of the skill with which the statesman rebuked the immoderate demands of the poet (Plat. Them. 5; Praecept. Polit. p. 807a.; Reg. et Imp. Apophth. p. 185c.; for another story see Cic. Fin. 2.32). One of his epigrams (No. 197) was written on the occasion of the restoration of the sanctuary of the Lycomidae by Themistocles. Respecting the enmity between Simonides and the poet Timocreon of Rhodes, see Schneidewin, p. xviii. The battle of Plataeae (B. C. 479) furnished Simonides with another subject for an elegy (Fr. 59; comp. Epig. 199), and gave occasion for the celebrated epigram (No. 198), which he composed for Pausanias, who inscribed it on the tripod dedicated by the Greeks at Delphi out of the Persian spoils; but which, on account of its arrogant ascription of all the honour of the victory to Pausanias himself, was erased by the Lacedaemonians, who substituted for it the names of the states which had taken part in the battle (Thuc. 1.1
Sophanes (*Swfa/nhs), an Athenian, of the demus of Deceleia. In the war between Athens and Aegina, just before the Persian invasion of B. C. 490, he slew in single combat Eurybates the Argive, before whose prowess three Athenians had already fallen. At the battle of Plataea, in B. C. 479, Sophanes distinguished himself by his valour above all his countrymen. One account described him as wearing during the engagement an iron anchor, which lie had fastened by a chain to the belt of his cuirass, and fixed in the ground to steady himself against the charge of the enemy. According to another statement, he merely bore the device of an anchor on his shield, which he kept perpetually whirling round. In B. C. 465, Sophanes was joined with Leagrus in the command of the 10,000 Athenians who unsuccessfully attempted to colonize Amphipolis, and was slain in battle by the natives. (Herod 6.92, 9.73-75 ; Thuc. 1.100, 4.102; Paus. 1.29.) [E.
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