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culum, as has been already narrated in the life of Caesar [Vol. I. p. 541]. He co-operated with Cicero in opposing the schemes of Catiline; and, when the latter left the city to make war upon the republic, Metellus had the charge of the Picentine and Senonian districts. By blocking up the passes he prevented Catiline from crossing the Apennines and penetrating into Gaul, and thus compelled him to turn round and face Antonius, who was marching against him from Etruria. In the following year, B. C. 62, Metellus went with the title of proconsul into the province of Cisalpine Gaul, which Cicero had relinquished because he was unwilling to leave the city. Although Metellus and Cicero had been thus closely connected, yet he was exceedingly angry when the orator attacked his brother Nepos, who had given him, however, abundant provocation. [See below, No. 21.] The letter which Celer wrote to Cicero on this occasion is still preserved, and is very characteristic of the haughty aristocratical sp
commenced his official career by a violent attack upon Cicero, whom he looked upon as the main support of the existing order of things. He openly asserted that he who had condemned Roman citizens without a hearing ought not to be heard himself, and accordingly prevented Cicero from addressing the people on the last day of his consulship, when he had to lay down his office, and only allowed him to take the usual oath, whereupon Cicero swore that he had saved the state. On the 1st of January, B. C. 62, Cicero attacked Metellus with great bitterness in the senate, and two days afterwards Metellus replied to him with equal bitterness, upbraiding him with his low origin, denouncing him as a tyrant for condemning Roman citizens to death unheard, and threatening him with an impeachment. Stung to the quick. Cicero published an oration against him, entitled " Metellina," of the nature of which the second Philippic will probably give us the best idea. Supported by Caesar, who was anxious, above
me, but he was prevented from obtaining a triumph by the partisans of Pompey. Metellus, however, could not relinquish his claim to a triumph, and accordingly resolved to wait in the neighbourhood of the city till more favourable circumstances. His patience was as great as his desire for the honour; for he was still waiting before the city in B. C. 63, when the conspiracy of Catiline broke out. He was sent into Apulia to prevent an apprehended rising of the slaves; and in the following year, B. C. 62, after the death of Catiline, he was at length permitted to make his triumphal entrance into Rome, and received the surname of Creticus. He was robbed, however, of the chief ornaments of his triumph, Lasthenes and Panares, whom a tribune of the plebs compelled him to surrender to Pompey. Metellus, as was naturally to be expected, joined Lucullus and the other leaders of the aristocracy in their opposition to Pompey, and succeeded in preventing the latter from obtaining the ratification of
Mu'cia 2. With the epithet TERTIA, was the daughter of Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur, consul in B. C. 95. She was a cousin (soror) of Q. Metellus Celer, consul in B. C. 60, and of Q. Metellus Nepos, consul III B. C. 57. Mucia married Cn. Pompey, by whom sne had two sons, Cneius and Sextus, and a daughter, Pompeia. She was divorced by Pompey just before his return from the Mithridatic war in B. C. 62. Mucia next married M. Aemilius Scaurns, a stepson of the dictator Sulla. In B. C. 39, Mucia, at the earnest request of the Roman people, went to Sicily to mediate between her son Sex. Pompey and Augustus. She was living at the time of the battle of Actium, B. C. 31. Augustus treated her with great respect. (Ascon. in Scaur. p. 19, Orelli ; Cic. ad Fam. 5.2, ad Att. 1.12; D. C. 37.49, 48.16, 51.2, 56.38; Appian. B. C. 5.69, 72; Suet. Jul. 50; Plut. Pomp. 42; Zonar. 10.5; Hieron. in Jovin. 1.48.) Whether the Mucia mentioned by Valerius Maximus (9.1.8) bo the same person is uncertain.
called in question by Wolf (ad Cic. pro Dom. l.c.). Now as we read of only one wife of Clodius, namely, Fulvia, it has been usually supposed that the above L. Natta was the brother of this Fulvia, and that his full name was therefore L. Fulvius Natta*; but Drumann has brought forward (Geschichte Roms, vol. ii. p. 370) reasons which render it very probable, that Clodius had, previous to his marriage with Fulvia, married another wife of the name of Pinaria, and that L. Natta was the brother of the latter and not the brother of Fulvia. The name of Natta is otherwise unknown in the Fulvia gens. The mother of Natta and of his sister Pinaria married a second time L. Murena, consul B. C. 62, and we consequently find Natta described as a step-son of Murena. (Cic. pro Muren. 35, pro Dom. 52.) * Hence we frequently find Natta or Nacca given as a cognomen in the Fulvia gens, as is stated in the article FULVIA GENS; but if Drumann's supposition is correct, and we believe it is, this is a mistake.
Petreius 2. M. Petreius, is first mentioned in B. C. 62, when he served as legatus to the proconsul C. Antonius, in his campaign against Catiline. Both Cicero and Sallust speak of Petreius as a man of great military experience, and one who possessed considerable influence with the troops. He had previously served in the army more than thirty years, either as tribune, praefectus, legatus, or praetor; but we know nothing of his former history, nor in what year he was praetor. In consequence of the illness of Antonius, according to one statement, or his dislike to fight against his former friend, as others rltate, the supreme command of the army devolved upon Petreius on the day of the battle, in which Catiline perished. (Sal. Cat. 59, 60; D. C. 37.39, 40; Cic. pro Sest. 5.) The name of Petreius next occurs in B. C. 59, in which year he offered to go to prison with Cato, when (Caesar, the consul, threatened the latter with this punishment. (D. C. 38.3.) In B. C. 55 Petreius was sent into
1.14; Vell. 2.41). He failed in obtaining the aedileship (Cic. pro Planc. 5, 21), and the year of his praetorship is uncertain. After his praetorship he received the province of Spain with the title of proconsul, and on his return to Rome in 69, enjoyed the honour of a triumph, although it was asserted by some that he had no claim to this distinction. (Cic. pro Flacc. 3, in Pison. 26; Ascon. in Pison. p. 15.) Piso served in the Mithridatic war as a legatus of Pompey, who sent him to Rome in B. C. 62, to become a candidate for the consulship, as he was anxious to obtain the ratification of his acts in Asia, anti therefore wished to have one of his friends at the head of the state. Piso was accordingly elected consul for the following year, B. C. 61, with M. Valerius Messalla Niger. In his consulship he gave great offence to Cicero, by not asking him first in the senate for his opinion, and still further increased the anger of the orator by taking P. Clodius under his protection after hi
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ho was consul B. C. 97, and he subsequently earned the hatred of the aristocracy by the energy with which he pressed for a reduction of the sum which the publicani had agreed to pay for the taxes in Asia, and by the support which he gave in B. C. 59 to Julius Caesar, who granted the demands of the equites. The younger Plancius, the subject of this notice, first served in Africa under the propraetor A. Torquatus, subsequently in B. C. 68 under the proconsul Q. Metellus in Crete, and next in B. C. 62. as military tribune in the army of C. Antonius in Macedonia. In B. C. 58 he was quaestor in the last-mentioned province under the propraetor L. Appuleits, and here he showed great kindness and attention to Cicero, when the latter came to Macedonia during his banishment in the course of this year. Plancius was tribune of the plebs in B. C. 56. In B. C. 55, in the second consulship of Pompey and Crassus, he became a candidate for the curule aedileship with A. Plotius, Q. Pedius, and M. Juven
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Pompeius Magnus or Pompeius the Great or Cn. Pompeius (search)
ke preparations for his return to Italy. He confirmed Pharnaces, the son and murderer of Mithridates, in the possession of the kingdom of Bosporus; Deiotarus, tetrarch of Galatia, who had supported the Romans in their war with Mithridates, was rewarded with an extension of territory, and Ariobarzanes, king of Cappadocia, was restored to his kingdom. After making all the arrangements necessary to secure the Roman supremacy in the East, Pompey set out for Italy, which he reached at the end of B. C. 62. His arrival had been long looked for by all parties with various feelings of hope and fear. The aristocracy dreaded that he would come as their master ; the popular party, and especially the enemies of Cicero, hoped that he would punish the latter for his unconstitutional proceedings in the suppression of the Catilinarian conspiracy; and both parties felt that at the head of his victorious army he might seize upon the supreme power, and play the part of Sulla. Pompey, however, soon calmed
on account of his conspiring against Augustus. The nature of this relationship is, however, not clear. The full name of this Murena was A. Terentius Varro Murena, and Drumann conjectures that he was the son of L. Licinius Murena, who was consul B. C. 62, and that he was adopted by A. Terentius Varro. The same writer farther conjectures that Proculeius was the son of C. Licinius Murena, the brother of the consul of B. C. 62, and that he was adopted by some one of the name of Proculeius. In that B. C. 62, and that he was adopted by some one of the name of Proculeius. In that case Proculeius would have been the cousin of Murena. We know that it was common among the Romans to call cousins by the name of brothers (frater patruelis and frater). (Drumann, Geschichte Roms, vol. iv. pp. 193, 194.) The great intimacy of Proculeius with Augustus is attested by many writers. (Dio Cass. l.c. ; Tac. Ann. 4.40; Plin. Nat. 7.45. s. 46, 36.25. s. 59.) Dio Cassius (l.c.) speaks of him and Maecenas as the principal friends of the emperor, and they both interceded, but to no purpos
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