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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Zinzendorf, Nicolaus Ludwig, Count 1700-1760 (search)
Zinzendorf, Nicolaus Ludwig, Count 1700-1760 Religious reformer; born in Dresden, Saxony, May 26, 1700; son of a leading minister of the electorate of Saxony; was educated at Halle and Wittenberg. When, Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf. in 1720, he received his deceased father's estate from his guardians, he purchased a lordship in Lusatia, and married a sister of the Prince of Reuss. When he was twenty-two years of age he became interested in the discipline and doctrines of the scattered Moravian brethren, invited some of them to settle on his estate, formed statutes for their government, and finally became a bishop among them, and one of their most ardent missionaries. John Wesley passed some time at the home of Zinzendorf, and from him imbibed notions of church organization and a missionary spirit upon which he afterwards acted. He commended singing as a wonderful power in the church. Zinzendorf was consecrated bishop in 1736, travelled over the Continent, visited England, a
s was followed by drawings on blocks in regular sets for separate colors. Albert Durer engraved such blocks; Parmigiano, Titian, and Raffaelle made designs on blocks for the purpose. Jackson started a paper-hanging factory at Chelsea, England, 1720 – 1754, the designs being printed in oil by wooden blocks. He appears to have been unsuccessful in some details and in the speculation. The art was adopted and improved by a succession of persons in England and elsewhere; Skippe and Savage of icity of the atmosphere harmlessly to the earth. It consists of a wire, rod, or slip of metal from the top of a house, tower, steeple, or mast, to the ground, or, better still, a ground-plate or system of buried iron pipes. Gray and Wheler, in 1720-1736, made experiments to ascertain the distance through which electric force could be transmitted, using insulated metals. Gray, in 1729, discovered the properties of electric conductors. He found that the attraction and repulsion which appea
were discovered in 1534. The mines of Brazil in 1728. Those in the Ural in 1829. The great Russian diamond weighs 193 carats; cost, £ 104,166 13 s. 4 d. in 1772. The Pitt diamond weighed 136 carats; sold to the king of France for £ 125,000, in 1720. The Koh-i-noor was found in 1550. It belonged in turn to Shah Jehan, AurungZebe, Nadir Shah, the Afghans, Runjeet-Singh, and Queen Victoria, 1850. It originally weighed 800 carats, was cut down to 289 carats by an unskilful Italian, and then t, and in some other places. Its use is no new thing. The Peruvians before the conquest used guano in the cultivation of the potato, tobacco, corn, and other piants for which Europe is indebted to this side of the Atlantic. An English cruiser in 1720 mentions having captured a small vessel laden with it. The guano-sower is sometimes an attachment to a wheat-drill, and does not differ very materially from a seed-sower, except in devices to keep the stuff stirred up and prevent its becoming a
wn as the dulcimer, psaltery, citole lyre, cithara, cymphonia or cymbal, citherium, and harp. See pianoforte. The harpsichord immediately preceded the pianoforte. In the earlier forms of these instruments the number of strings was not equal to that of the keys, but the latter brought into action devices which shortened the strings, in the manner of a guitar. We read of an instrument in 1600 which had a key for each string, but this was unusual at that time. Pedals were introduced 1720; double-action about 1808. 2. A concave grating in a scutching-machine, through which refuse escapes as the cotton is beaten and driven forward by the revolving beater. 3. (Husbandry.) A Scotch grain-sieve for removing weed-seeds from grain. Harp′ing-i′ron. A barbed javelin. The word is derived from its capacity for clawing or grasping. A harpoon. Harp′ings. (Shipbuilding.) a. The wales of the bow, of extra strength. b. A ribband trimmed to the shape of and bolted
cury is used for the bob or weight. As the pendulum expands the mercury rises, and by the rise of its center of gravity compensates for the other inequality. See pendulum. Mercurial pump. Mer-cu′ri-al pump. A pump invented by Haskins in 1720, in which a column of mercury acts as plunger and piston packing. Fig. 3123 shows a pump of this form. a is the chamber of the pump, with a valve at each end opening upwardly. b is the suction-pipe, and c the outlet. A bent tube connects chaof brass which form spouts to conduct the ink from the reservoir to the paper. Mu′sic-print′ing. Music was first printed by types on which the ledger lines were cast. The font displayed all possible variations of character and position. In 1720, music was engraved on plates. Breitkopf's type, 1764, had the ledger lines on separate type. Reinhard printed the ledger lines from engraved plates, and the notes from type at a second pull. Another and more modern plan is to put up the le<
ginated in the Low Countries, so called. Flanders and Holland gave to England much of her husbandry and gardening knowledge, field, kitchen, and ornamental. Blythe's Improver improved, published in 1652, has allusions to the subject. Lummis, in 1720, imported plows from Holland. James Small of Berwickshire, Scotland, made plows and wrote treatises on the subject, 1784. He made cast-iron mold-boards and wroughtiron shares, and introduced the draft-chain. He made shares of cast-iron in 1785.d by Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, in 1710. Botticher invented the hard paste in 1706; the red ware like jasper, in 1711: white porcelain, in 1709; the perfect, white kind, in 1715. He died in 1719. Heroldt introduced gilding and painting in 1720; modeled groups, in 1731; porcelain made in England, at Bow, in 1698. Wedgwood ware was first patented, 1762. Porcelain may be distinguished from the coarser earthenware as a pottery which is fine grained, compact, very hard, and somewhat tran
he steam pressed directly upon the water to drive it up the eduction-pipe. Cutting off the steam caused the steam in the water-chamber to condense, and atmospheric pressure again filled the chamber from the well. Leupold's engine. Leupold, 1720 (Fig. 5659), invented an engine in which two vertical cylinders were placed parallel, their pistons being raised by the direct pressure of the steam, necessitating the use of piston-rods. A four-way cock of ingenious construction made the necessa Watt never saw a good power-lathe or a planing-machine of any kind. Watt next proposed, in certain cases where cold water was scarce, to abandon the condenser and allow the steam to exhaust into the atmosphere, thus reviving Leupold's idea of 1720. This is one feature of the ordinary high-pressure engine, but Watt was always afraid of high-pressure, and though he included a steam-carriage in one of his patents, it was not a success until Trevethick and Vivian built their steam-carriage, in
urs, the machinery proceeds to supply the waste. It has been known to be over five and a half minutes in making a single revolution, moving regularly all this time, however, and capable of automatically increasing the rate almost immediately to more than 30 revolutions a minute. The Holly Water-Works in various cities of the Union have also an automatic regulator. The first engine known to have been thus automatically regulated was one at Ross, Herefordshire, England. In that town, in 1720, John Kyrle, celebrated in Pope's Elegy as the Man of Ross, established a system of water supply for that town, which, from that time to the present has been uninterruptedly in use. The distinctive feature of this system consists in forcing water by pumps into the street mains, so as to supply the town with water under such pressure as may be required. At the Ross works, the ordinary pressure for many years has been 45 pounds per square inch. Steam-power has been substituted for the old wa
ce to female petitions to Congress, 1.157. Woodbury, James Trask, Rev. [b. Francestown, N. H., May 9, 1803; d. Milford, Mass., Jan. 16, 1861], one of 70 agents, 2.167; abuse of G., 2.141-143, 152, 167, 271, replied to, 154; sympathy from E. Wright, 168; accuses G. of Thomsonianism, 281. Brother of Woodbury, Levi [1789-18511, identity mistaken, 1.517; Secretary of Treasury, 2.141. Woolfolk, Austin, assaults Lundy, 1.91, 50, defied by G., 151, avoids him in jail, 177. Woolman, John [1720-1773), anti-slavery, 1.393, 2.413. Worcester (Mass.) A. S. Convention, 2.163, 167, 170; clerical, 244, Young Men's, 245, for G. and Rogers, 414, 417, 418, 420. World, edited by C. W. Denison, 1.415. World's Anti-Slavery Convention (London), call, 2.352, modified, 353; Am. delegates, 351, 353, 354, 356; meets, 362, 367; debate on woman question, 367-373; tries to get G. to enter, 374, 375; results of convention, 380, woman's rights landmark, 381, 382. World's Anti-Slavery Conventio
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.), Chapter 3: the Puritan divines, 1620-1720 (search)
n is so much under the aw of the Reverend Author, whom we answer, and his Friends, that we could not obtain of the Printer there to print the following Sheets, which is the true Reason why we have sent the Copy so far for its Impression and where it was printed with some Difficulty. When James Franklin spoke out roundly against the tyranny of the ministers, they induced the magistrates to teach him respect by throwing him into the common gaol. It was a serious matter to offend the hierarchy, even in the days of its decline, and far more serious to attack. But the days of its domination were numbered, and after 1720 the secular authority of the Puritan divines swiftly decayed. The old dream of a Kingdom of God was giving way, under pressure of economic circumstance, to the new dream of a commonwealth of free citizens. The theological age was to be followed by a political age, and in this later world of thought the Puritan divines were unfitted to remain leaders of the people.
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