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printing, as to the mode of its execution. Variegated linen cloths of Sidon are mentioned by Homer; and Herodotus speaks of the garments of the inhabitants of the Caucasus as variegated with figu-gilt, brazen-sounding castanets. Song to Diana, quoted by DICAeARCHUS. The Phaaeacians, in Homer, had a dance in which their figures were accompanied by the bystanders, who made a clapping noislies appear to have been made by bending a single strip around a former. The pole, according to Homer, was about 13 1/2 feet long, and the yoke was attached to it by a strap and a pin, and sometimesearnt from the Libyans to yoke four horses to a chariot (iv. 189). It is, however, mentioned by Homer (Iliad, VIII. 185; Odyssey, XIII. 81). In the Assyrian chariots a spare horse was sometimes a00 B. C., but none of gold or silver till a much later period. The brass money referred to by Homer as existing 1184 B. C. was bronze, and may have been merely pieces of known weight. Herodotus s
imes a preliminary tint was given with coccus (kermes). The dye and dyed goods are celebrated in the Hebrew and other ancient scriptures. This color seems, from its extreme beauty, permanence, and costliness, to have become regal, and the royal taste is for the same down to our day. The color of the velvet in the crown of the Queen of England is a shade of purple; the velvet coronation robes of George IV. were of that color. Pliny (A. D. 70) says that the robes of triumph in the time of Homer (900 B. C.) were colored. Purple habits were given to Gideon by the Israelites from the spoils of the kings of Midian. Achan secreted a Babylonish garment, and suffered for it. Plutarch says that when Alexander took Susa, the Greeks took from the royal treasury purple stuffs to the value of 5,000 talents (1 talent $860 × 5,000 = $4,300,000), which still retained their beauty, though they had lain there 190 years. Prussian blue was discovered by Diesbach, at Berlin, 1710; aniline, in 182
Persians all excelled in it. The adornments of the tabernacle in the wilderness were of tapestry worked in blue, scarlet, and gold. The garment of Sisera, as referred to by Deborah, was embroidery, needle-work on both sides. See damask. Homer refers to embroidery as the occupation of Helen and Andromache. The tents of wealthy Arabs have an inner covering of white embroidered stuff beneath the dark, outer, water-proof covering of goat's-hair. The Tartar women excel in embroidery,eveh, and the gorgeous rilievos of Persepolis, attest the skill and fancy of the artists of the times Ere Romulus and Remus. From Egypt or Phoenicia the Greeks received the art of engraving, where it had considerably advanced in the time of Homer. Among other uses which are allied to chasing and inlaying, it was employed in delineating maps on metallic plates. Specimens of Etrurian art are also of great antiquity, and we prudently do not enter the arena to settle the questions of prece
of shark's teeth lashed to a back piece, the primitive saw. A mother-ofpearl hook with attached tuft of hair to act as bait is known as witte-wittee. The old Egyptian fish-hooks were of bronze. See one in Dr. Abbott's collection, New York. Homer mentions the barbed hooks as used by Ulysses and his companions in Sicily: — All fish and birds, and all that come to hand With barbed hooks. Odyssey, XII. 322 Athenaeus states (A. D. 220) that the hooks were not forged in Sicily, but weres to lift meat from the pot, but they had no table-forks. The carver, carptor, had a knife for carving, and the guests furnished their own. The meat was grasped by the finger and thumb of the left hand, and a piece excised. The New Testament, Homer, and Ovid mention the putting of the hands in the dish. Corkscrew hay-fork. The dipping in the dish refers to making a scoop of a piece of bread and dipping out the soup or gravy. To give a sop thus prepared to a friend at table was a del
garded as a part of the indicative dress of Northern barbarians. Some dirty-handed cynics calling themselves philosophers railed at the Roman gentry for wearing gloves. The father of Ulysses wore gloves while working in his garden. So said Homer. The use of gloves in common life is a habit of late introduction. During the Middle Ages the glove was worn as a badge of distinction, and also in the helmet as a token of a lady's favor. See Hall's Chronicle, time of Henry IV. Charlem gold, silver, copper, and iron at a lower hole, forming a matt which is shipped to Swansea, Wales, for complete separation. Gold, im-i-ta′tion. Mock-gold. See jeweler's alloys, p. 63. Gold-leaf. Gold-leaf was made in Egypt 1706 B. C. Homer refers to it. The temple of Solomon was profusely gift. Pliny states that in his time a single ounce admitted of being heaten out into 750 leaves, four fingers in length by the same in breadth. This tenuity is very far exceeded at the present d
tinuous brim. Made of cloth, felt, straw, silk, splints, grass, etc. Felt hats are as old as Homer. The Greeks made them in various forms; skull-caps, conical, truncated. narrow or broad brimmeplanting, training, and trimming hedges. Thorns for hedges were used by the Greeks 1000 B. C. Homer represents Ulysses as finding Laertes digging, and preparing to plant a row of quick-sets. Thour translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, and but sparingly in the Greek classics. Hesiod and Homer make no mention of hemp. It is first mentioned by Herodotus: — Hemp grows in Scythia; it is mon tool in Roman agriculture. It was also common in Greece in the form shown at h (Fig. 2517). Homer describes Laertes as hoeing when found by Ulysses. The Romans hoed their grain crops, wheat, urposes mules were shod with iron. Ferream ut soleam tenaci in vargine mula. Catullus. Homer mentions brazen-footed steeds (Iliad, VIII. 41, and XIII. 24), probably a merely metaphorical ex
ried with a bronze sword and spear. Some have dated the use of iron in Greece at 1406 B. C., but Hesiod makes it later. Homer generally speaks of bronze arins, but mentions iron. We learn from the Iliad that at the time of the siege of Troy (11ence is the strength of iron, etc., shows clearly that the writer or compiler of the Odyssey, whom we are content to call Homer, lived in a time when iron and steel were forged and tempered. About 500 B. C., and thereafter, steel was imported intstan, indicates a period at about A. D. 400. See forging. The examples cited from the writings of Moses, Hesiod, and Homer, the attestation of the recovered implements from Egypt and Nineveh, and the Egyptian paintings, render it useless to citgypt, as the paintings in the tombs yet testify. Ahab's ivory house, 900 B. C., and the palace of Menelaus, described by Homer, were probably paneled with ivory, or the walls and pillars inlaid therewith. Ezekiel records that ivory was used to orn
y colored papers when at school. Netting is quite another matter, and is a fabric whose meshes are made over a mesh-stick and knotted at the intersections; as Dr. Samuel Johnson learnedly defines: Network. Anything reticulated or decussated at equal distances, with interstices between the intersections. The width of the mesh-stick determines the size of the meshes, which are knotted upon it. References to netting are frequent in the Hebrew chronicles, the Book of Job, the Prophets, in Homer, Virgil, and elsewhere. Oppian distinguishes many kinds. They are frequently shown in the Egyptian tombs and temples. See net. Wearing involves a machine, though this is sometimes of an extremely simple kind. It involves a beam or a means of stretching out the yarns into a flat row; also some means of dividing the yarns into a series above and one below, the space between being the shed into which the weft is laid; the upper and lower sets of yarns, changing places, lock the weft, an
e found in collections: especially from the excavations of Pompeii. Sepulchral lamps were commonly placed in tombs, and have thus been preserved in many cases. Homer makes no mention of them, though they had been long in use in Egypt, and it is understood that he had seen the Thebes he portrayed. The upper three figures, a b c Semiramis, the Assyrian queen, is credited with the invention of weaving. The Greeks represented Minerva with a distaff, as being the inventress of spinning. Homer refers to the products of the loom. The Egyptians credited it to Isis; the Mohammedans to a son of Japhet; the Chinese to the consort of the Emperor Yao (Noah); t the Egyptian cloths were worked by the loom; and others are the result of dyeing and printing processes. Colored dresses, says Pliny, were known in the time of Homer, from whom the robes of triumph were borrowed; and from the Phrygians having been the first to devise the method of giving the same effect with the needle, they ha
m this objection, but it has an inconvenience of its own; a large quantity of calcined magnesia is thrown off as a fine powder, as stated above. Mag′net. The attractive power of the loadstone or magnet was early known, and is referred to by Homer, Aristotle, and Pliny. Says Pliny: The magnet-stone is found in Cantabria. We read that the architect Dinochares was employed by Ptolemy to roof a temple at Alexandria with magnet-stone, by means of which an iron image of his sister Arsinoe mplest form of taxation upon property; the eminent domain of water being vested in the sovereign. The Egyptians, says Eustathius, recorded their marches in maps. Plate XXIX. has a representation of the popular idea of the earth in the time of Homer, 900 B. C. It consisted of a strip of land around the Pontus Pelagus, and even the boundaries were not known toward the northwest. Cimmerian darkness brooded upon the deep which surrounded the land. Next is the world as known to Hecateus abou
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