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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Stevens, John 1749-1838 (search)
sity) in 1768; and studied law, but never practised. Seeing John Fitch's steamboat on the Collect in New York in 1787, he became interested in the subject of steamboat navigation, and experimented for nearly thirty years. He unsuccessfully petitioned the legislature of New York for the exclusive navigation of the waters of the State. He built a propeller in 1804—a small open boat worked by steam. It was so successful that he built the Phoenix, a steamboat completed soon after Fulton and Livingston had set the Clermont afloat. The latter having obtained the exclusive right to navigate the waters of New York, Stevens placed his boats on the Delaware and Connecticut rivers. In 1812 he published a pamphlet urging the United States government to make experiments in railways traversed by carriages propelled by steam, and proposed the construction of a railway for such a purpose from Albany to Lake Erie. This was nearly a quarter of a century before such a work was accomplished. He die
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Stock-raising. (search)
population. We had, also, about 1,800,000 mules and asses. Sheep husbandry is a large and profitable industry. There were fully 36,000,000 sheep in the United States, and they have increased largely in recent years. The fleece that commanded the highest premium at the world's fair in London in 1851 was grown among the hills of Tennessee. Early in the nineteenth century some efforts were made to improve the breed of swine in the United States. Soon after his return from Europe, Chancellor Livingston imported some and bred from them. There was much opposition at first among the farmers to this innovation; but the palpable superiority of the imported to the native swine was so apparent that the prejudice was soon overcome, and there began to be an improvement in the appearance of swine in many parts of the country. In 1880 the whole number of swine in the Union was 47,681,700. In 1900 there were in the United States 13,537,524 horses, valued at $603,969,442; 2,086,027 mules, va
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Tripoli, War with (search)
was astonished, and the little American squadron cruising in the Mediterranean made the Barbary States more circumspect. Recognizing the existence of war with Tripoli, the United States government ordered a squadron, under Commodore Richard V. Morris, to relieve Dale. the Chesapeake was the commodore's flag-ship. The vessels did not go in a body, but proceeded one after another, between February (1801) and September. Early in May, the Boston, after taking the United States minister (R. R. Livingston) to France, blockaded the port of Tripoli. There she was joined by the frigate Constellation, while the Essex blockaded two Tripolitan corsairs at Gibraltar. the Constellation, left alone, had a severe contest not long afterwards with seventeen Tripolitan gunboats and some land batteries, which were severely handled. Another naval expedition was sent to the Mediterranean in 1803, under the command of Com. Edward Preble, whose flagship was the Constitution. The other vessels were t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New York, (search)
ans and Indians, appears before Ticonderoga......July 1, 1777 George Clinton elected governor......July 3, 1777 John Jay appointed chief-justice and Robert R. Livingston chancellor......1777 Garrison under General St. Clair abandon Ticonderoga......July 6, 1777 Murder of Jane McCrea by the Indians near Fort Edward.... barge rowed by thirteen pilots dressed in white......April 23, 1789 Oath of office taken by Washington......April 30, 1789 [Oath was administered by Chancellor Livingston in the balcony of the City Hall.] First recorded party contest in New York State; votes polled, 12,453......1789 Oliver Phelps opens in Canandaigua tengine and a worm-screw projecting from the stern of the boat......1796 Albany becomes permanent capital of the State......1797 Legislature grants to Chancellor Livingston an exclusive right to navigate the inland waters of the State by vessels propelled by fire or steam......1798 New York appropriates $1,200,000 to defend
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Walworth, Reuben Hyde 1788-1867 (search)
om the shore and to report the resuits. He held a seat in Congress in 1821-23; was judge of the fourth judicial district of New York in 1823-28; and chancellor of New York State in 1828-48. In the latter year the court of chancery was abolished by the adoption of the new constitution. He published Rules and orders of the New York Court of Chancery, and Hyde genealogy (2 volumes). He died in Saratoga Springs, N. Y., Nov. 27, 1867. His son, Mansfield Tracy, born in Albany, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1830, graduated at Union College in 1849 and at the Harvard Law School in 1852; was admitted to the bar in 1855, but soon abandoned law and devoted himself to literature. He was the author of Life of Chancellor Livingston and many novels. He was shot and killed by his son, who claimed that he committed the act to save his mother's life, in New York City, June 3, 1873. The trial of the son is famous in American law history. He was acquitted on the plea of insanity and was placed in an asylum.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Washington, George (search)
s. He was evidently moved by this demonstration of public affection. Advancing to the front of the balcony he laid his hand upon his heart, bowed several times, and then retreated to an arm-chair near the table. The populace appeared to understand that the scene had overcome him, and were hushed at once into profound silence. After a few moments Washington rose and again came forward. John Adams, the Vice-President, stood on his right; on his left the chancellor of the State, Robert R. Livingston; somewhat in the rear were Roger Sherman, Alexander Hamilton, Generals Knox, St. Clair, the Baron Steuben, and others. The chancellor advanced to administer the oath prescribed by the Constitution, and Mr. Otis, the secretary of the Senate, held up the Bible on its crimson cushion. The oath was read slowly and distinctly, Washington at the same time laying his hand on the open Bible. When it was concluded, he replied, solemnly, I swear—so help me, God! Mr. Otis would have raised
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Washingtoniana. -1857 (search)
ington accepted the office, and towards evening the same day rode rapidly to Fredericksburg to bid farewell to his aged mother. On the morning of the 16th, accompanied by Thomson, Colonel Humphreys, and his favorite body-servant, he began his journey towards New York, everywhere on the way greeted with demonstrations of reverence and affection. He was received at New York with great honors, and on April 30 he took the oath of office as President of the United States, administered by Robert R. Livingston, chancellor of the State of New York. The ceremony took place in the open outside gallery of the old City Hall, on the corner of Wall and Nassau streets, in the presence of both Houses of Congress and a vast multitude of citizens. He was dressed in a plain suit of dark-brown cloth and white silk stockings, all of American manufacture. He never wore a wig. His ample Washington's House in Cherry Street, New York, in 1789. hair was powdered and dressed in the fashion of the day, c
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans), The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States. (search)
ted. September 28th, Mr. Madison wrote to Mr. Livingston, minister at Paris, instructing him, if thing France in the methods of negotiation. Mr. Livingston, in obedience to these instructions, begandinary to Paris to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. (Annals of Congress, 1802-1803, pp. 1095restlessness is shown in the instructions to Livingston and Monroe, written April 18, but which did arrogant demands. The resident minister, Mr. Livingston, under instructions from a friendly Presidnroe; have an interview this very day with Mr. Livingston. But I require a great deal of money for hat price they were willing to pay for it. Mr. Livingston says (Letter of Livingston to Madison, AnnLivingston to Madison, Annals of Congress, 1802-3, p. 1126): I told him no; that our wishes extended only to New Orleans and tpotentiary and envoy extraordinary, and Robert R. Livingston, minister plenipotentiary, on the part ved at home? The joint letter of Monroe and Livingston, announcing the treaty, reads more like a le[6 more...]
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans), The civil history of the Confederate States (search)
or the general welfare. During all these struggles of the colonies among themselves, caused by commercial rivalries, the slavery of any part of the population was not the cause of dangerous disagreement anywhere. The British colonies were all slave-holding. Negroes were bought and sold in Boston and New York as well as in Richmond or Savannah. The Declaration of Independence, written by Jefferson, who was opposed to slavery, and concurred in by the committee of which Adams, Sherman, Livingston and Franklin, all Northern men, were members, made no declaration against slavery and no allusion to it, except to charge the King of Great Britain with the crime of exciting domestic insurrection. In framing the Constitution all sectional differences, including the subject of slavery, were compromised. The compromises on the slavery question inserted in the Constitution were, as Mr. Blaine correctly remarks, among the essential conditions upon which the Federal government was organized.
should be compelled to yield a revenue at the disposition of the crown. Some of them, at New York, suggested such a requisition of quitrents, as would be virtually a general land-tax, by act of parliament. While I can wield this weapon, cried Livingston, the large landholder, grasping his sword, England shall never get it but with my heart's blood. Reunion of Great Britain, &c., 88. In the Assembly at New York, which had been chosen in the previous year, the popular party was strengthened b the popular alderman, a merchant of New York, and William, who represented his brother's manor, a scholar, and an able lawyer, the incorruptible advocate of civil and religious liberty, in manners plain, by his nature republican. Nor may Robert R. Livingston, of Duchess County, be forgotten,—an only son, heir to very large estates, a man of spirit and honor, keenly sensitive to right, faultless as a son, a son-in-law, a husband, possessing a gentleness of nature and a candor that ever endeared
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