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al at Ticonderoga changed the spirit of the camp. We have seen Richard Montgomery, who had served in the army from the age of fifteen, gain distinction in the Seven Years war. Several years after his return to Ireland, he took the steps which he believed sufficient for his promotion to a majority; failing in his pursuit and thinking himself overreached, he sold his commission in disgust and emigrated to New York. Here, in 1773, he renewed his former acquaintance with the family of Robert R. Livingston, and married his eldest daughter. Never intending to draw his sword again, studious in his habits, he wished for retirement; and his wife, whose affections he entirely possessed, willingly conformed to his tastes. At Rhinebeck a mill was built, a farm stocked, and the foundation of a new house laid, so that peaceful years seemed to await them. Montgomery was of a sanguine temperament, yet the experience of life had tinged his spirit with Chap. LII.} 1775. melancholy, and he would
e evening was consumed in the discussion. The desire of attaining a perfect unanimity and the reasonableness of allowing time for the delegates of the central colonies to consult their constituents, induced seven colonies against five to assent to the delay, but with the further condition, that, to prevent any loss of time, a committee should in the meanwhile prepare a declaration in harmony with the proposed resolution. On the next day, Jefferson, John Adams, Franklin, Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston were chosen by ballot to prepare the declaration; and it fell to Jefferson to write it, both because he represented Virginia from which the proposition had gone forth, and because he had been elected by the largest number of votes. On the twelfth the office of digesting the form of a confederation to be entered into between the colonies, was referred to a committee of one member from each colony; and as if the subject had not been of transcendant importance, the appointment of the
claims in the west, to accelerate the federal alliance and lead to the happy establishment of the federal union; and, as if its eye had pierced the glories of the coming century, it provided that the western lands which might be ceded to the United States should be settled and formed into distinct republican states, which shall become members of that federal union, and have the same rights of sovereignty, freedom, and independence as the other states. In October, n words drafted by Robert R. Livingston, it adhered Chap. XIX.} 1780. with hearty good — will to the principles of the armed neutrality, and by a vote of a majority of the states it sought to quiet the discontent among the officers in the army by promising them half-pay for life. But to relieve the embarrassments of the moment it was powerless. Again on the twenty-second of October, Washington, to guide his native state towards union, poured out his heart to his early friend George Mason: Our present distresses a
lent to it support; but it had its origin in the cabinet of your Majesty. A week later, France, like Spain, acceded to the declaration of Russia. The war in which the king is engaged has no other object than the liberty of the seas. The king believed he had prepared an epoch glorious for his reign, in fixing by his example the rights of neutrals. His hopes have not been deceived. On the fifth of October, the United States of Oct. 5. America in congress, by a resolution which Robert R. Livingston had drafted, proclaimed the principles of the empress of Russia, and afterwards included them in their treaties with the Netherlands, with Sweden, and with Prussia. By the other belligerent of that day, the armed neutrality was considered fatal to its sovereignty over the ocean. The king was ready to having the question to an issue. His ministry were of the opinion, that to tolerate the armed neutrality was to confess that British supremacy on the high seas was broken. A half-of
Chapter 26: England refuses to continue the American war. 1782. the campaign in Virginia being finished, Wash- Chap. XXVI.} 1782. Jan. 7. ington and the eastern army were cantoned for the winter in their old positions around New York; Wayne, with the Pennsylvania line, marched to the south to re-enforce Greene; the French under Rochambeau encamped in Virginia; and de Grasse took his fleet to the West Indies. From Philadelphia, Robert R. Livingston, the first American secretary for foreign affairs, communicated to Franklin the final instructions for negotiating peace; and the firm tone of Franklin's reply awakened new hopes in congress. While the conditions of peace were under consideration, America obtained an avowed friend in the Dutch republic. John Adams had waited more than eight months for an audience of reception, unaided even indirectly by the French ambassador at the Hague, because interference would have pledged France too deeply to the support of the Unite
n communicating to him the new commission of Oswald. On m'a assure que les negociations sur le fond étaient entamees et que le plenipotentiaire anglais était assez coulant Mais je suis dans l'impossibilite de rien vous dire de positif et de certain á cet égard, Messrs. Jay et Franklin se tenant dans la reserve la plus absolue à mon ègard. Ils ne m'ont meme pas encore remis copie du plein pouvoir de Mr. Oswald. Je pense, Monsieur, qu'il sera utile que vous disiez cette particularity a Mr. Livingston, afin qu'il puisse s'il le juge a propos ramener les deux plenipotentiaires americains á la teneur de leurs instructions. Vergennes to Luzerne, 14 Oct., 1782. After the capture of Minorca by the Duke de Crillon, Chap. XXIX.} 1782. Sept. the French and Spanish fleets united under his command to reduce Gibraltar; and Count d'artois, the brother of the king, passed through Madrid to be present at its surrender. But danger inspired the British garrison with an unconquerable intrepidi
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