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h of August, about eight or ten days after his departure, was ordered back to his former position at Petersburg, having sustained a loss of more than 1500 men. Swinton, Army of the Potomac, p. 532.; Meanwhile, and before General Hancock's return, an expedition, aimed at the Weldon Railroad, was undertaken by General Warren. on both sides, resulting, however, in the final retention of the road by the Federals. Their loss amounted to not less than 4455 killed, wounded, and missing. Swinton, Army of the Potomac, p. 535. This shows what a strong effort General Lee had made to dislodge the enemy from the Weldon road. Unfortunately, and owing to the imeve him were marched by the longer of the two roads leading to him. The Federal loss was reckoned at 2400, killed, wounded, and missing, out of about 8000 men. Swinton's Army of the Potomac, p. 538. Our own loss was severe also, though we have no means now at hand, of ascertaining the exact figures. Since the battle of Drury'
would have reanimated the whole South, and brought back thousands of absentees to our ranks. Under such circumstances, with a wise, far-seeing Administration, and with prompt, energetic action in the field, was it folly to assume that we could have claimed and obtained an honorable peace? General Beauregard knew that the South was not exhausted; that there still remained in it strong powers of vitality; that the granaries of that vast and fertile territory bulged with stores of corn. Swinton's Army of the Potomac, p. 571. He also knew that the Army of Northern Virginia was wasting away in a futile attempt to preserve Richmond and Petersburg; that General Lee was not in a position to undertake any movement against the army confronting him; and that should reinforcements be drawn from his ranks, none of his plans would thereby suffer or be prevented; while, by utilizing one or two corps of the Army of Virginia, Sherman could have been checked, cut off from his base, and, eventual
le of the Wilderness (May 5-7, 1864), and it was, very fortunately, almost unique of its kind. It was not, like the later contests, an affair of entrenchments; cavalry had no important share in it, artillery little; it came as near as the invention of gunpowder permitted to the earliest form of hand-to-hand fighting. No description of the merely confused and chaotic side of war by Tolstoi or Zola or Crane equals the simplest soldier's narration of the Battle of the Wilderness. It was, in Swinton's phrase, a collision of brute masses. Decisive Battles of the War, p. 383. Once begun, it soon lost almost the semblance of military formation. Men could not see their own officers, keep in their own ranks or even know whom they were fighting. In the dense woods portions of regiments fired into one another. Badeau describes the region as one tangled mass of stunted evergreen, dwarf chestnut, oak and hazel, with an undergrowth of low-limbed bristling shrubs, making the forest almost i
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Harvard Memorial Biographies, 1858. (search)
re three of those five regiments of Sedgwick's division who had routed the enemy at Fair Oaks. This brigade was sent down the steep bank unsupported, and at its foot they sustained for fifteen or twenty minutes the enemy's cutting fire, while open boats could be prepared and pushed into the stream. In these unprotected boats the brigade, by several instalments, made the passage of the stream, under concentrated fire, till they had gained the cover of the opposite bank. The affair, says Mr. Swinton's History, was gallantly executed, and the army, assembled on the northern bank, spectators of this piece of heroism, paid the brave fellows the rich tribute of soldiers' cheers. But the harder half of the task remained. This was the ordeal of marching straight through the town, and driving out the picket marksmen who, having been forced back from the bank, had taken refuge in the houses. This most severe of trials was too much even for the other fine regiments of the brigade, and the
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Harvard Memorial Biographies, Biographical Index. (search)
II. 274. Stow, Mr., II. 226. Strattan, Jacob, II. 422. Strong, Adelia, II. 158. Strong, G. C., Brig.-Gen., II. 194, 195;, 464. Strong, J., II. 158, 160;. Strong, S., Hon., II. 158. Sullivan, Letitia, I. 133. Sullivan, R., Hon., I. 349. Sullivan, T. R., II. 163. Sully, Alfred, Brig.-Gen., II. 247. Summerhayes, J. W., Lieut., II. 455. Sumner, Charles, Hon., I. 84; II. 53. Sumner, E. V., Maj.-Gen., I. 124, 213;, 214, 218, 422, 423; II. 170, 307;, 309. Swinton, William. I. 426. Sykes, G., Maj.-Gen., II. 337, 338;, 340. T. Tanner, Edward, II. 427. Tannett, T. R., Colonel, I. 412. Taylor, Chancellor, II. 237. Taylor, E. T., Rev., 1. 75. Taylor, J. Bayard, II. 413. Taylor, Nelson, Colonel, I. 141,144. Taylor, R., Brig.-Gen. (Rebel service), I. 368. Taylor, S. H., Rev., II. 158, 230;, 395. Taylor, Zachary (President U. S.), I. 22. Teague, G. H., Captain, I. 135. Tebbets, Catharine A., II. 52. Tebbets, E. M.,
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans), The civil history of the Confederate States (search)
dge, and after all, Grant's army had been compelled to intrench and await reinforcements on the ground most unfavorable for assault on the Confederate capital. Mr. Swinton, the historian, says so gloomy was the military outlook after the action of the Chickahominy (second Cold Harbor, June 2), and to such a degree, by consequence, assaults until 12,737 of his brave men were put out of line, and the remainder stubbornly but wisely refused to charge again. Another charge being ordered, says Swinton, no man stirred, and the immobile lines pronounced a verdict silent yet emphatic against slaughter. To this date General Grant's losses for the campaign as stateen-down horses. This estimate is made on the reports of the army of Northern Virginia, also the conclusions of Major-General Humphreys of the Federal army and of Swinton, the Northern historian. The United States secretary of war, Mr. Stanton, reports that Grant's available force at the same period, March 1, 1865, was 162,239.
d, Jackson left it on the night of the 17th of June, ordering his cavalry to continue its demonstrations down the Valley; and by rail and march, the ride-and-tie way, as it was called, he reached the vicinity of Richmond on the 26th day of June, and was in line of battle and ready to fall on McClellan's rear and participate in the bloody engagement of Gaines' Mill on the 27th, and become a potent factor in winning the victory of that great day of the Seven Days of battle around Richmond. Swinton, the Federal historian of the army of the Potomac, in writing of Jackson's Valley campaign, says: In this exciting month's campaign, Jackson made great captures of stores and prisoners; but this was not its chief result; without gain. ing a single tactical victory he had yet achieved a great strategic victory, for by skillfully maneuvering 15,000 men he succeeded in neutralizing a force of 60,000 It is perhaps not too much to say that he saved Richmond; for when McClellan, in expectati
of leaders at this important juncture might dampen the ardor of the Union army and make it a less confident opponent of its old-time antagonist. In this dark period of its history we were to join that army and cast in our lot with it for victory or defeat, for life or death. Had Hooker been permitted to take French's troops from Maryland Heights, there is good reason for believing that we should have become a permanent part and parcel of the Twelfth Corps, as the following extract from Swinton's Army of the Potomac will show. After speaking of the moves open to Hooker from Frederick, where he had concentrated, he says: There is yet evidence that he purposed making at least a strong demonstration on Lee's line of communications. With this view he threw out his left well westward to Middletown, and ordered the Twelfth Corps, under General Slocum, to march to Harper's Ferry. Here Slocum was to be joined by the garrison of that post, eleven thousand strong, under General Fre
was told with a very interesting setting of details. Never having heard the incident before, it came as new matter and was forgotten; but while looking up material for this campaign we found his story fully corroborated in all essential points, and that Stuart did, on that very night after his interview with the Third Corps, find himself thus involved. Lossing says between the Third and Second corps, but he is wrong, as the whole of the former encamped at or near Greenwich that night. Swinton says Sykes's Fifth Corps and Warren's Second, which is more probable. His first resolve was to abandon his guns, and get out the best way he could, hoping to escape under cover of darkness with little loss; but this idea he relinquished, and hid his forces in a thicket of low pines that are wont to spring up from the exhausted soil of old fields. Feeling uncertain what the issue of his complicated situation might be, he fitted out three of his men with muskets and Union uniforms, with ins
gin, during the night, that it was simply madness to think of an assault upon it. So thought Warren, who was considered a skilful engineer; so thought the men of his command; Recognizing that the task now before them was of the character of a forlorn hope, knowing well that no man could here count on escaping death, the soldiers, without sign of shrinking from the sacrifice, were seen quietly pinning on the breast of their blouses of blue, slips of paper on which each had written his name.—Swinton's campaigns of the Army of the Potomac. so decided Gen. Meade, who rode rapidly over to the left to satisfy himself. It was a great grief to the latter to have a campaign from which he had hoped so much end without success, but any further move looking to a dislodgment of Lee would entail a still further advance into the enemy's country; and this, with our supply trains across the river, and the rations of the army now nearly exhausted, was not to be thought of in the hostile month of Dec
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