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Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Contents of the Eleventh Book of Diodorus (search)
12-13). —How Themistocles outgeneralled Xerxes and the Greeks conquered the barbarians in the naval battle of Salamis (chaps. 14-18). —How Xerxes, leaving Mardonius behind as commander, withdrew with a portion of his army to Asia (chap. 19). —How the Carthaginians with great armaments made war upon Sicily (chaps. 20-21). —How Gelon, after outgeneralling the barbarians, slew some of them and took others captive (chaps. 22-23). —How Gelon, when the Carthagi the Syracusans and lost his overlordship (chap. 53). —How Themistocles, who had fled for safety to Xerxes and was put on trial for his life, was set at liberty (chaps. 54-59). —How the Athenians freed the Greek cities throughout Asia (chaps. 60-62). —On the earthquake that occurred in Laconia (chap. 63). —On the revolt of the Messenians and Helots against the Lacedaemonians (chaps. 63-64). —How the Argives razed Mycenae to the ground and ma
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 2 (search)
d Bithynia, and Pontus. Spending a period of three years, as did the Carthaginians, on his preparations, he made ready more than twelve hundred warships. He was aided in this by his father Darius, who before his death had made preparations of great armaments; for Darius, after Datis, his general, had been defeated by the Athenians at Marathon, had continued to be angry with the Athenians for having won that battle. But Darius, when already about to cross overi.e. from Asia into Europe via the Northern Aegean. against the Greeks, was stopped in his plans by death, whereupon Xerxes, induced both by the design of his father and by the counsel of Mardonius, as we have stated, made up his mind to wage war upon the Greeks. Now when all preparations for the campaign had been completed, Xerxes commanded his admirals to assemble the ships at Cyme and Phocaea, and he himself collected the foot and cavalry forces from all the satrapies
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 19 (search)
punishment they deserved. And the Phoenicians, frightened by his threats, first put into port on the coast of Attica, and then, when night fell, set sail for Asia. But Themistocles, who was credited for having brought about the victory, devised another stratagem no less clever than the one we have described. For, s it. Accordingly the king, believing the report because it was plausible, became fearful lest he should be cut off from the route whereby he could get back to Asia, now that the Greeks controlled the sea, and decided to cross over in all possible haste from Europe into Asia, leaving Mardonius behind in Greece with Asia, leaving Mardonius behind in Greece with picked cavalry and infantry, the total number of whom was not less than four hundred thousand.We are told in chap. 28.4 that the size of the army was "more than two hundred thousand," and in chap. 30.1 that it was "about five hundred thousand." Thus Themistocles by the use of two stratagems brought about sign
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 33 (search)
dividing up the booty according to the number of the soldiers, they made their decision as to the award for valour, and in response to the urging of Aristeides they bestowed the prize for cities upon Sparta and for men upon Pausanias the Lacedaemonian. Meanwhile Artabazus with as many as four hundred thousand of the fleeing Persians made his way through Phocis into Macedonia, availing himself of the quickest routes, and got back safely together with the soldiers into Asia. The Greeks, taking a tenth part of the spoils, made a gold tripodThe gold tripod proper was carried off by the Phocians in the Sacred War. But the bronze pillar, eighteen feet high, which supported it and was composed of three intertwined serpents, was removed by the emperor Constantine and is still to be seen in the Atmeidan (formerly Hippodrome) in Instanbul. It carries the names of thirty-one Greek states which took part in the Persian Wars, and th
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 34 (search)
is collected the fleet in Aegina, and after spending some days there they sailed to Delos with two hundred and fifty triremes. And while they lay at anchor there, ambassadors came to them from Samos asking them to liberate the Greeks of Asia. Leotychides took counsel with the commanders, and after they had heard all the Samians had to say, they decided to undertake to liberate the cities and speedily sailed forth from Delos. When the Persian admirals, who were then at Samos, herald who had the strongest voice of anyone in the fleet. This man had been ordered to sail up to the enemy and to announce in a loud voice, "The Greeks, having conquered the Persians, are now come to liberate the Greek cities of Asia." This Leotychides did in the belief that the Greeks in the army of the barbarians would revolt from the Persians and that great confusion would arise in the camp of the barbarians; and that is what actually happened. For as soon as
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 36 (search)
as the troops of Leotychides and Xanthippus pressed upon the beaten barbarians and pursued them as far as the camp; and Aeolians participated in the battle, after the issue had already been decided, as well as many other peoples of Asia, since an overwhelming desire for their liberty entered the hearts of the inhabitants of the cities of Asia. Therefore practically all of them gave no thought either to hostagesHeld by the Persians as sureties of the faithfulness oAsia. Therefore practically all of them gave no thought either to hostagesHeld by the Persians as sureties of the faithfulness of the Greek contingents to their oaths of loyalty to the Persians. or to oaths, but they joined with the other Greeks in slaying the barbarians in their flight. This was the manner in which the Persians suffered defeat, and there were slain of them more than forty thousand, while of the survivors some found refuge in the camp and others withdrew to Sardis. And when Xerxes learned of both the defeat in Plataea and the rout of his own troops in Mycale, he left a portion o
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 37 (search)
Leotychides and Xanthippus now sailed back to Samos and made allies of the Ionians and Aeolians, and then they endeavoured to induce them to abandon Asia and to move their homes to Europe. They promised to expel the peoples who had espoused the cause of the Medes and to give their lands to them; for as a general thing, they explained, if they remained in Asia, they would always have the enemy on their borders, an enemy far superior in military strength, while their allies, who lived across the sea, would be unable to render them any timely assistance. When the Aeolians and Ionians had heard these promises, they resolved tn common they would no longer look upon Athens as their mother-city. It was for this reason that the Ionians changed their minds and decided to remain in Asia. After these events it came to pass that the armament of the Greeks was divided, the Lacedaemonians sailing back to Laconia and the Athenians together wi
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 56 (search)
mistocles, being persecuted as he was on every side, accepted the gold and fled by night out of the territory of the Molossians, the king furthering his flight in every way; and finding two young men, Lyncestians by birth, who were traders and therefore familiar with the roads, he made his escape in their company. By travelling only at night he eluded the Lacedaemonians, and by virtue of the goodwill of the young men and the hardship they endured for him he made his way to Asia. Here Themistocles had a personal friend, Lysitheides by name, who was highly regarded for his fame and wealth, and to him he fled for refuge. Now it so happened that Lysitheides was a friend of Xerxes the king and on the occasion of his passage through Asia Minor had entertained the entire Persian host.Plutarch (Plut. Them. 26) calls him Nicogenes; the man who entertained Xerxes' army is named Pythius by Herodotus (Hdt. 7.27); Thucydides does not menti
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 57 (search)
anguage, and using it in his defence he was acquitted of the charges. And the king was overjoyed that Themistocles had been saved and honoured him with great gifts; so, for example, he gave him in marriage a Persian woman, who was of outstanding birth and beauty and, besides, praised for her virtue, and [she brought as her dower] not only a multitude of household slaves for their service but also of drinking-cups of every kind and such other furnishings as comport with a life of pleasure and luxury.This marriage of Themistocles to a noble Persian lady is attested only by Diodorus and is almost certainly fictitious. Furthermore, the king made him a present also of three cities which were well suited for his support and enjoyment, Magnesia upon the Maeander River, which had more grain than any city of Asia, for bread, Myus for meat, since the sea there abounded in fish, and Lampsacus, whose territory contained extensive vineyards, for wine.
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XI, Chapter 59 (search)
uperior strength and the Spartan Eurybiades held the supreme command of the fleet, could by his singlehanded efforts have deprived Sparta of that glory? Of what other man have we learned from history that by a single act he caused himself to surpass all the commanders, his city all the other Greek states, and the Greeks the barbarians? In whose term as general have the resources been more inferior and the dangers they faced greater? Who, facing the united might of all Asia, has found himself at the side of his city when its inhabitants had been driven from their homes,The Athenians all took refuge on the island of Salamis after the Persians had passed Thermopylae; cp. chap. 13.3 f. and still won the victory? Who in time of peace has made his fatherland powerful by deeds comparable to his? Who, when a gigantic war enveloped his state, brought it safely through and by the one single ruse of the bridgeCp. chap. 19.5-6. reduced
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