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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Mahan, Alfred Taylor 1840- (search)
885. After the Civil War he served in the South Atlantic, Pacific, Asiatic, and European squadrons. During 1886-93 he was president of the Naval War College, at Newport, R. I.; in 1893-96 was in command of the United States protected cruiser Chicago; and was retired at his own request, Nov. 17, 1896. During the war with Spain he was recalled to active service and made a member of the naval advisory board, and in 1899 President McKinley appointed him a delegate to the peace conference at The Hague. Captain Mahan is known the world over for his publications on naval subjects, and particularly on naval strategy. He was dined by Queen Victoria; honored with the degree of Ll.D. by Cambridge, Oxford, and McGill universities; and had his Influence of sea power in history translated by the German Naval Department and supplied to all the public libraries, schools, and government institutions in the German Empire. Besides a large number of review and magazine articles, he has published T
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Murray, William Vans 1762-1803 (search)
Murray, William Vans 1762-1803 Diplomatist; born in Cambridge, Md., in 1762; received a classical education; and after the peace in 1783 studied law in the Temple, London; returned about 1785, practised law, served in his State legislature, and was in Congress from 1791 to 1797. He was an eloquent speaker and a keen diplomatist; was appointed by Washington minister to the Batavian Republic, and by Adams sole envoy extraordinary to the French Republic. Ellsworth and Davie afterwards joined him. He was instrumental in the arrangement of the convention signed in Paris in September, 1800, between America and France, and then returned to his mission at The Hague. He died in Cambridge, Dec. 11, 1803.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Neutrality. (search)
h contraband goods whose value did not exceed threefourths of the whole cargo. From that time until the beginning of 1780 the insolence of British cruisers and the tone of the British ministers offended the Northern powers. The tone was often insulting. When the Dutch, said Lord North, say We maritime powers, it reminds me of the cobbler who lived next door to the lord mayor, and used to say, My neighbor and I. Official language was often equally offensive. The British minister at The Hague said, For the present, treaty or no treaty, England will not suffer materials for ship-building to be taken by the Dutch to any French port. A similar tone was indulged towards the other powers, excepting Russia The shrewd Catharine, perceiving the commercial interests of her realm to be involved in the maintenance of the neutral rights of others, after long coquetting with Great Britain, assumed the attitude of defender of those rights before all the world. Early in March, 1780, she i
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New Netherland. (search)
New Netherland. To the Binnenhof, at The Hague, repaired deputies from the Amsterdam company of merchants and traders to have an audience with the States-General of Holland, to solicit a Seal of New Netherland. charter for the region in America which the discoveries of Henry Hudson had revealed to the world. That was in 1614 They sent twelve high and mighty lords, among them the noble John of Barneveld. The deputies spread a map before them, told them of the adventures of their agents in the region of the Hudson River, the heavy expenses they had incurred, and the risks they ran without some legal power to act in defence. Their prayer was heard, State-House in New York. and a charter, bearing date Oct. 11, 1614, was granted, in which the country was named New Netherland. This was before the incorporation of the Dutch West India Company. In 1623, New Netherland was made a province or county of Holland, and the States-General granted it the armorial distinction of a cou
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New York, colony of (search)
the States-General of Holland granted special privileges for traffic with the natives by Hollanders. A company was formed, and with a map of the Hudson River region, constructed, probably, under the supervision of Block, they sent deputies to The Hague--the seat of government—to obtain a charter. It was obtained on Oct. 11, 1614, to continue four years. The territory included in this charter of privileges—between the parallels of lat. 40° and 45° N., as lying between Virginia and New France therland. Finally serious political troubles overtook the colony. From the beginning of the settlement the English claimed New Netherland as a part of Virginia, resting their claim upon the discovery of Cabot. In 1622 the English minister at The Hague demanded the abandonment of the Dutch settlements on the Hudson. Five years afterwards Governor Bradford, of Plymouth, gave notice to Governor Minuit that the patent of New England covered the domain of New Netherland. In the spring of 1664 C<
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Northeastern boundary, the (search)
n the United States and the British possessions on the east, as defined by the treaty of peace in 1783, remained unsettled at the close of President Jackson's administration, in 1837. In conformity with the treaty of Ghent (1814), the question concerning that boundary was, in 1829, submitted to the King of the Netherlands for arbitration. Instead of deciding the question submitted to him, he fixed a new boundary (January, 1837) not contemplated by either party. The American minister at The Hague immediately protested against the decision, but, as it gave territory in dispute to Great Britain, that government accepted the decision. The State of Maine, bordering on the British territory of New Brunswick, protested against the award. Collisions occurred, and the national government began negotiations with Maine with a view to an amicable settlement of the affair. An agent appointed by Maine recommended that State to cede to the United States her claim beyond the boundary-line reco
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Pauncefote, Lord Julian of Preston 1828- (search)
Pauncefote, Lord Julian of Preston 1828- Diplomatist; born in Preston Court, England, in 1828; was called to the bar in 1852; appointed attorney-general of Hong-Kong in 1865; acting chief-justice of the Supreme Court in 1869-72; became permanent foreign under secretary in 1882; minister to the United States in 1889; and ambassador in 1893. He represented Great Britain at the Suez Canal conference in 1885, and at the peace conference at The Hague in 1899, and in the latter year was created first Lord Pauncefote. Since his official residence in the United States he has been connected with the several diplomatic questions between the two countries, and so won the esteem of the United States government that his term of office was extended at its request. pauperism in the United States
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Peace conference, universal (search)
gested a conference of the powers with a view to the maintenance of universal peace, and the limiting of excessive armaments. As the suggestion met with general favor, the Emperor of Russia, on Jan. 11, 1899, proposed a congress to be held at The Hague, May 18, 1899, in which each power, whatever the number of its delegates, would have only one vote. The subjects to be submitted for international discussion at the congress could be summarized as follows: 1. An understanding not to increas Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States of America. The United States were represented by the lion. Andrew D. White, ambassador to Berlin; the Hon. Seth Low, president of Columbia University; the Hon. Stanford Newel, minister to The Hague; Capt. Alfred T. Mahan, U. S. N.; Capt. William Crozier, U. S. A., and the Hon. Frederick W. Holls, of New York. At the opening of the conference, May 18, M. de Staal, the Russian ambassador, was elected President. The subjects suggested
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Revolution, diplomacy of the (search)
province bind the Dutch Republic. Finally, Henry Laurens was sent by Congress to negotiate a treaty with the States-General, but was captured while crossing the Atlantic, and imprisoned in England. Then John Adams was sent for the purpose to The Hague. Early in 1782, through the joint exertions of Mr. Adams and the French minister at The Hague, the provinces, one after another, consented to the public recognition of Mr. Adams, and so openly recognized the independence of the United States. The Hague, the provinces, one after another, consented to the public recognition of Mr. Adams, and so openly recognized the independence of the United States. He was publicly introduced to the Prince of Orange on April 22, 1782. In October following he had completed the negotiation of a treaty with Holland, and signed it with great satisfaction. It was a Treaty of Alliance between their High Mightinesses the States-General of the United Netherlands and the United States of America. This treaty was not altogether dependent upon the alliance of the United States with France, and was a step forward in the march of the former towards independent nat
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Rockingham, Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquis of 1730- (search)
owing opposition to resign his office. On March 28, 1782, when Lord North resigned the office of prime minister, the Marquis of Rockingham was again called to the head of the cabinet. The avowed principle of Rockingham and his colleagues was to acknowledge the independence of the United States and treat with them accordingly. Lord Shelburne still hoped Lord Rockingham. for a reconciliation and the restoration of the American colonies as a part of the British Empire. John Adams was at The Hague, negotiating a treaty of commerce, and overtures were made to him, as well as to Franklin at Paris, to ascertain whether the United States would not agree to a separate peace, and to something less than entire independence. With this object, the ministry appointed Sir Guy Carleton to supersede General Clinton in command of the British army in America, and commissioned him, along with Admiral Digby, to treat for peace. Their powers to treat were made known to Congress, but that body dec
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