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Chapter 36: introduction to 1863. The year 1863 opened drearily for the President, but the Confederates generally seemed to have, for some unexplained cause, renewed hope of recognition by England and France, and with this they felt sure of a successful termination of the struggle. Mr. Davis was oppressed by the fall of Donelson, Nashville, Corinth, Roanoke Island, New Orleans, Yorktown, Norfolk, Fort Pillow, Island No.10, Memphis, General Bragg's defeat at Murfreesboro, the burning of the Virginia and the ram Mississippi, the sinking of the Arkansas, and other minor disasters. The victory at Fredericksburg was the one bright spot in all this dark picture. Complaints from the people of the subjugated States came in daily. Women were set adrift across our borders with their children, penniless and separated from all they held dear. Their property was confiscated, the newspapers were suppressed, and the presses sold under the Confiscation act. In Tennessee, county of
with thirty-two horses. The loss on the Union side was one killed and one wounded. Among the rebels killed was Stevens, one of the party who murdered three of Piatt's Zouaves in such a shocking manner.--Louisville Journal, Feb. 15. Roanoke Island, N. C., with all its defences, was captured to-day by the combined military and naval forces of the United States, under General Burnside and Commodore Goldsborough. The expedition entered Roanoke Inlet yesterday morning; and, soon afterwards, it entered Croatan Sound, on the western front of Roanoke Island. The enemy's gunboats occupied a position close in-shore under the guns of two heavy works, named respectively Forts Bartow and Blanchard; and at eleven o'clock the fire was opened between them and the flag-ship of the Union squadron, (the Southfield,) and as the opposing forces more nearly approached each other, the fire became more rapid. The enemy having obstructed the channel of Croatan Sound by an ingenious arrangement o
enty-five Tennesseeans were enlisted at Cerro Gordo, by Lieutenant Gwin of the Taylor, and the most perfect success crowned the arduous labors of the party.--(Doc. 32.) Ethan A. Hitchcock was confirmed as Major-General of Volunteers in the Army of the United States. General Hunter proclaimed martial law throughout the State of Kansas, and declared the crime of jayhawking should be put down with a strong hand and summary process. Commander Rowan, with fourteen vessels, left Roanoke Island yesterday afternoon, and at six minutes past nine, this morning, when off Cobb's Point, N. C., he attacked the rebels' squadron, which had fled from Roanoke, under Commander Lynch, and two batteries, mounting five guns. Within twenty minutes a schooner belonging to the enemy, struck her colors, and was burned by her crew; and immediately afterward, the crews of the Powhatan, Fanny, Sea Bird and Forrest, ran them ashore and set fire to them, while those of the Raleigh and Beaufort ran th
Report. The Ninth battery of Rhode Island Artillery, under the command of Lieut. Wightman, passed through New York, en route for Port Royal, S. C.--N. Y. Times, February 16. The President, through the Secretaries of War and the Navy, returned thanks to Brig.-Gen. Burnside and Flag-Officer Goldsborough, and to Brig.-Gen. Grant and Flag-Officer Foote, and the land and naval forces under their respective commands, for their gallant achievements in the capture of Fort Henry and at Roanoke Island. Bowling Green, Ky., was evacuated this morning by the rebels, and occupied by the National army under command of Brig.-Gen. D. C. BuelL The National troops reached Big Barren River, opposite the city, about two o'clock this afternoon, having accomplished a difficult march of forty miles in twenty-eight hours and a half. They found the bridge across the river destroyed. Col. Turchin's brigade crossed on a flat-boat, the artillery, under command of Captain Loomis firing shell across
the Senate. Nineteen Senators were present, and a quorum of Representatives. After the election of proper officers, and a speech from Thomas S. Bocock, of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives, the permanent Congress was declared duly organized.--(Doc. 48.) The Thirteenth regiment of Maine volunteers, under the command of Colonel Neal Dow, left Camp Beaufort, Augusta, for the seat of war. Flag.-officer Goldsborough and Brig.-Gen. Burnside issued a proclamation at Roanoke Island, explaining the object of their mission, declaring the course they intend to pursue, and inviting the inhabitants of North-Carolina to separate themselves from the malign influence of the bad men in their midst, and to return to their allegiance.--(Doc. 49.) Howell Cobb, R. Toombs, M. J. Crawford, Thomas R. R. Cobb, members from Georgia, have issued an address to the people of that State, on relinquishing their seats in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States. They call
Richmond, Va., for avowing themselves subjects of the Lincoln Government, and expressing sentiments disloyal to the Southern Confederacy. John Gold is an Irishman; Elias Paulding, the other prisoner, is a man about fifty years of age, and apparently an American. William Hammond, a McCulloch Ranger, and another member of the same company, were sworn as witnesses. Hammond deposed: I was taking supper last night at Ford's, and the conversation at the table turned on the late affair at Roanoke Island, and the subsequent treatment of our men by the Yankees. I said we had been treated about as well as prisoners of war could expect. Gold spoke up, and asked if any one ever had been maltreated under the Stars and Stripes. He said he himself was a soldier, and a member of the Polish Brigade. That he had been dragged to the recruiting office in New Orleans with a halter about his neck, and forced to enlist. He said he was a citizen of Philadelphia — that the Star Spangled Banner had o
, to serve during the war, in response to a requisition for that number made upon the State by the President of the Confederate States. He urges upon the people the necessity of the call, in consequence of reverses to the Southern arms, and threatens to meet the demand by conscription, if the regiments are not formed by volunteers within fifteen days.--(Doc. 78.) The public mind of the entire South is fast recovering from its causeless panic occasioned by the unfortunate affairs at Roanoke Island and Fort Donelson. Considerate men see that much ultimate good may come of them by inuring us to defeats that must often occur in a war with a power possessed of superior numbers and superior resources of all kinds, by curing us of that rashness which our continued successes had begotten, and, most of all, by stimulating enlistments, and thus increasing the number and efficiency of our armies. It is now almost certain that by the last of April we shall have a larger disposable force in
d and long marches, desperate combats and privations. The patience they have shown is wonderful, and their confidence in their General is unbounded. He trusts in them to save their country.--(Doc. 94.) The battle of Newbern, North-Carolina, was fought this day between a combined land and naval force of the United States under Gen. Burn side and Commodore Goldsborough, and a rebel force under the command of Gen. Lawrence O'B. Branch. Day before yesterday, the National fleet left Roanoke Island, and entering the mouth of the Neuse River, landed the troops under cover of the gunboats yesterday morning at Slocum's Creek. The men then marched some twelve miles up the river, and bivouacked for the night on the railroad, while the gunboats proceeded further up, and shelled a rebel battery. This morning the march was again resumed, and the troops had proceeded but a short distance when the rebels were discovered. Their works consisted of a series of strong batteries, extending o
de of Gen. Shields's division led the advance on the back road to the rear of Mount Jackson, and Gen. McCall on the turnpike. Gen. Williams, with his main division, brought up the reserved column. In the confederate House of Representatives, at Richmond, Va., a committee appointed to investigate the Roanoke Island disaster, presented a voluminous report which concludes by saying that: Whatever blame or responsibility is justly attributable to any one for the defeat of our troops at Roanoke Island on the eighth of February last, should attach to Major-General Huger and Mr. Benjamin, the late Secretary of War. --Charleston Mercury, April 18. This morning, in pursuance of orders received during the night, a heavy mounted force, consisting of the Second Indiana, two Illinois, two Kentucky, and two Ohio cavalry regiments, making together about four thousand, assembled upon the upper road from Pittsburgh Landing to Corinth, Miss., in the vicinity of Gen. Sherman's headquarters, wi
April 19. The battle of Camden, North-Carolina, was fought this day. Day before yesterday Gen. Reno left Newbern and proceeded to Roanoke Island, from which place he took about two thousand men and proceeded to Elizabeth City, where a strong rebel force was reported to be intrenching themselves. To-day, an advance was made upon the rebels, who opened fire with their artillery as soon as the Union troops made their appearance. The troops immediately formed in line of battle, and charged on the enemy, who ran at the first fire. The Nationals then immediately took possession of the town, and after remaining there for a few hours, retired to the main army. The force was about two thousand men, under Gen. Reno, and three boat-howitzers, under Col. Howard. The force of the rebels consisted of a Georgia regiment, numbering eleven hundred men, a portion of Wise's Legion, and two batteries of artillery. The enemy was totally routed, with a loss of about sixty men. The National
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