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e clouds of disease. Possessing an extraordinary greatness of mind, vast conceptions, remarkable for their universality and precision, and surpassing in speculative endowments; Testimony of Friends. Compare J. F. Fisher's just and exact tribute to Penn, in Private Life of William Penn. So too R. Tyson's Discourse, 1831, and Note 2. conversant with men, and books, and governments, with various languages, and the forms of political combinations, as they existed in England and France, in Holland, and the principalities and free cities of Germany, he yet sought the source of wisdom in his own soul. Humane by nature and by suffering; familiar with the royal family; intimate with Sunderland and Sydney; acquainted with Russel, Halifax, Shaftesbury, and Buckingham; as a member of the Royal Society, the peer of Newton and the great scholars of his age,—he valued the promptings of a free mind more than the Chap XVI.} awards of the learned, and reverenced the single-minded sincerity of
l. The intense application of the system of monopoly, combined with the despotism of the sovereign and the priesthood, precipitated the decay of Portuguese commerce in advance of the decay of the mercantile system; and the Moors, the Persians, Holland, and Spain, dismantled Portugal Chap. XX.} of her possessions at so early a period, that she was never involved, as a leading party, in the early wars of North America. Far different were the relations of Spain with our colonial history. Thith which Spain had spread its hierarchy, its missions, its garrisons, and its inquisition, over islands and half a continent, were recognized by England; and both powers were, by their legislation, pledged to the system of colonial monopoly. Holland had emerged into existence as the advocate and example of maritime freedom, and had, moreover, been ejected from the continent of North America. Yet, as a land power, it needed the alliance of England as a barrier against France; and the aristo
of April, at midnight, the two Indians from Canajoharie, escorted by Mohawk warriors, that filled the air with their whoops chap. V.} 1753 and halloos, presented to Johnson the belt of warning which should urge the English to protect the Ohio Indians and the Miamis. Col. Johnson to the Governor of New York, 20 April, 1753. In May more than thirty canoes were counted as they passed Oswego; part of an army going to the Beautiful River of the French. Stoddard to Johnson, 15 May, 1753. Holland to Clinton, 15 May, 1753. Smith to Shirley, 24 December, 1753. The Six Nations foamed with eagerness to take up the hatchet; for, said they, Ohio is ours. On the report that a body of twelve hundred men had been detached from Montreal, by the brave Duquesne, the successor of La Jonquiere, to occupy the Ohio valley, the Indians on the banks of that river,—promiscuous bands of Delawares, Shawnees, and Mingoes, or emigrant Iroquois,—after a council at Logstown, resolved to stay the progres
cited still more resistance. Why should a people, of whom one half were of foreign ancestry, be cut off from all the world but England? Why must the children of Holland be debarred from the ports of the Netherlands? Why must their ships seek the produce of Europe, and, by a later law, the produce of Asia, in English harbors alone island of St. Eustatia, a heap of rocks, but two leagues in length by one in breadth, without a rivulet or a spring, gathered in its storehouses the products of Holland, of the Orient, of the world; and its harbor was more and more filled with fleets of colonial trading-vessels, which, if need were, completed their cargoes by entice-admiralty courts; so that Great Britain, after deducting its expenses, received, it was said, less benefit from the trade of New York than the Hanse Towns and Holland; while the oppressive character of the metropolitan legislature made the merchants principal supporters of what royalists called faction. The large landholders
chap. VII.} 1754. solemn assurances of England. Giving discretionary power in case of a rupture, they instructed Duquesne to act only on the defensive; Le Garde des Sceaux to Duqaesne, 1754. New York Paris Doc., x., 44. to shun effusion of blood, and to employ Indian war-parties only when indispensable to tranquillity. Yet Canada, of which the population was but little above eighty thousand, sought security by Indian alliances. Chiefs of the Six Nations were invited to the colony, Holland to Lieut. Gov. Delancey, 1 Jan., 1755. and, on their arrival, were entreated, by a very large belt of wampum from six nations of French Indians, to break the sale of lands to the English on the Ohio. Have regard, they cried, for your offspring; for the English, whom you call your brothers, seek your ruin. Already the faithless Shawnees, Duquesne to De Drucourt, 8 March, 1755. the most powerful tribe on the Ohio, made war on the English, and distributed English scalps and prisoners amon
d, and their mutual griefs increase.—In four years, Durand to Choiseul, Dec. 1767. Compare Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis, 15 Dec. 1767. the Americans will have nothing to fear from England, and will be prepared for resistance. He thought of Holland as a precedent, yet America, he observed, has no recognised chieftain; and without the qualities united in the House of Orange, Holland would never have thrown off the yoke of Spain. Durand to Choiseul, 1 Jan. 1768. The extreme purpose ofHolland would never have thrown off the yoke of Spain. Durand to Choiseul, 1 Jan. 1768. The extreme purpose of the Bedford party to 1768. Jan. abrogate colonial charters and introduce a uniformity of government, appeared immediately on Hillsborough's taking possession of his newly created office. Johnson, the faithful agent of Connecticut, a churchman, and one who from his heart wished to avoid a rupture between the Colonies and England, waited upon him to congratulate him on his advancement. W. S. Johnson to W. Pitkin, 13 Feb. 1768. Connecticut, declared Hillsborough, may always Chap. XXXI.} 17
Chapter 36: The towns of Massachusetts meet in Convention.— Hillsborough's Administration of the Colonies con-tinued. September—1768. The approach of military rule convinced Samuel Chap. XXXVI.} 1768. Sept. Adams of the necessity of American Independence. From this moment, S. Adams's own statement to a friend in 1775. Ms. he struggled for it deliberately and unremittingly as became one who delighted in the stern creed of Calvin, which, wherever it has prevailed, in Geneva, Holland, Scotland, Puritan England, New England, has spread intelligence, severity of morals, love of freedom, and courage. He gave himself to his glorious work, as devotedly as though he had in his keeping the liberties of mankind, and was a chosen instrument for fulfilling what had been decreed by the Divine counsels from all eternity. Such a cause left no room for fear. He was, said Bernard, one of the principal and most desperate of the chiefs of the faction; the all in all Instar omnium; t
ivingston, 12 Dec. 1768. The New Year brought a dissolution Moore to Hillsborough, 24 Jan, 1769. of its Assembly; and in the new elections, the Government party employed every art to create confusion. It excused the violence of recent disputes; concealing the ex tremes of difference between the British Parliament and the American people. It sought to gratify the cravings of every interest. It evaded conflicts with the merchants, and connived at importations from Saint Eustatia and Holland. The family of the Delanceys, which had long seemingly led the Opposition in the Province, was secretly won over to the side of authority. One of the Livingstons could no longer sit in the Assembly, for a law made the office of Judge and Representative incompatible; another who was to be returned from the Manor, was held to be ineligible because he resided in the city. The men of business desired an increase of the paper currency, and the Government gave support to the measure. The tena
ty, made war on human freedom. The liberties of Poland had been sequestered, and its territory began to be parcelled out among the usurpers. The aristocratic privileges of Sweden had been swept away by treachery and usurpation. The Free Towns of Germany, which had preserved in that empire the example of Republics, were, like so many dying sparks that go out one after another. Venice and Genoa had stifled the spirit of indepen- Chap. LII.} 1774. April. dence in their prodigal luxury. Holland was ruinagainst ously divided against itself. In Great Britain the House of Commons had become so venal, that it might be asked, whether a body so chosen and so influenced was fit to exercise legislative power even within the realm. If it shall succeed in establishing by force of arms its boundless authority over America, where shall humanity find an asylum? But this decay of the old forms of liberty was the symptom and the forerunner of a new creation. The knell of the ages of servitud
ciples; the Dutch, as a body, never loved Britain. Of the two great families which the system of manorial grants had raised up, the Livingstons inclined to republicanism, and uniting activity to wealth and ability, exercised a predominant influence. The Delanceys, who, by taking advantage of temporary prejudices, had, four years before, carried the assembly, no longer retained the public confidence; and outside of the legislature, their power was imperceptible. After being severed from Holland, its mother country, New York had no attachment to any European State. All agreed in the necessity of resisting the pretensions of England; but differences arose as Chap. VI.} 1774. July. to the persons to be intrusted with the direction of that resistance; and as to the imminence and extent of the danger. The merchants wished no interruption to commerce; the Dutch Reformed church, as well as the Episcopalians, were not free from jealousy of the Congregationalists, and the large land-ho
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