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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cotton. (search)
rth as latitude 36°, on the eastern shore of Maryland. Forty years later it was cultivated on Cape May, N. J.; but it was almost unknown, except as a garden plant, until after the Revolutionary War. At the beginning of that conflict General Delagall had thirty acres under cultivation near Savannah, Ga. In 1748 seven bags of cotton-wool were exported to England from Charleston, S. C., valued at £ 3 11s. 5d. a bag. There were two or three other small shipments afterwards, before the war. At Liverpool eight bags shipped from the United States in 1784 were seized, on the ground that so much cotton could not be produced in the United States. In 1786 the first seaisland cotton was raised, off the coast of Georgia, and its exportation began in 1788 by Alexander Bissell, of St. Simon's Island. The seeds were obtained from the Bahama Islands. The first successful crop of this variety was raised by William Elliott on Hilton Head Island, in 1790. It has always commanded a higher price on ac
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cotton famine, (search)
ts during the Civil War. The English market was overstocked with American cotton at the beginning of the Civil War, and the actual distress did not begin till nearly a year thereafter. In December, 1863, it was found necessary to organize systems of relief, and at the end of that month 496,816 persons in the cotton-manufacturing cities were dependent on charitable or parochial funds for sustenance. In February, 1863, three American vessels, the George Griswold, the Achilles, and the Hope, loaded with relief supplies, contributed by the citizens of the United States, reached Liverpool, and by the end of June the distress began to diminish. At that time the sum of $9,871,015 had been contributed to the various relief funds. The action of the citizens of the United States in sending substantial relief, while in the throes of civil war, was gratefully appreciated by a large number of the public men of Great Britain. In connection with this, see Beecher, Henry Ward, System of Slavery.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Crittenden, Thomas Leonidas 1815- (search)
Crittenden, Thomas Leonidas 1815- Military officer; second son of John J. Crittenden; born in Russellville, Ky., May 15, 1815; studied law with his father, and became commonwealth's attorney in 1842. He served under General Taylor in the war against Mexico, and when the latter became President of the United States he sent Crittenden to Liverpool as United States consul. He returned in 1853, and in September, 1861, was made a brigadier-general and assigned a command under General Buell. For gallantry in the battle of Shiloh he was promoted to major-general of volunteers and assigned a division in the Army of the Tennessee. He afterwards commanded the left wing of the Army of the Ohio under General Buell. Then he served under Rosecrans, taking part in the battles at Stone River and Chickamauga. His corps was among the routed of the army in the last-named battle. He commanded a division of the 9th Corps in the campaign against Richmond in 1864. In March, 1865, he was brevet
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Draper, John William, 1811- (search)
Draper, John William, 1811- Scientist; born in St. Helen's, near Liverpool, England, May 5, 1811; was educated in scientific studies at the University of London; came to the United States in 1833, and continued his medical and chemical studies in the University of Pennsylvania, where John William Draper. he took the degree of M. D. He became (1836-39) Professor of Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, and Physiology in Hampden-Sidney College, Virginia. From 1839 Dr. Draper was connected, as professor, with the University of the City of New York, and aided in establishing the University Medical College, of which he was appointed (1841) Professor of Chemistry. In 1850 physiology was added to the chair of chemistry. From that year he was the president of the medical faculty of the institution, and in 1874 he was also president of the scientific department of the university. Dr. Draper was one of the most patient, careful, and acute of scientific investigators. His industry in experi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Free trade. (search)
ive rate with which we have to do; and, as the American writer appears to contemplate with a peculiar dread the effect of free trade upon shipping, I further quote Mr. Giffen on the monthly wages of seamen in 1833 and 1883, in Bristol, Glasgow, Liverpool, and London. The percentage of increase, since we have passed from the protective system of the navigation law into free trade, is, in Bristol, 66 per cent.; in Glasgow, 55 per cent.; in Liverpool (for different classes), from 25 per cent. to Liverpool (for different classes), from 25 per cent. to 70 per cent.; and in London, from 45 per cent. to 69 per cent. Mr. Giffen has given the figures in all the cases where he could be sufficiently certain of exactitude. No such return, at once exact and comprehensive, can be supplied in the case of the rural workman. But here the facts are notorious. We are assured that there has been a universal rise (somewhat checked, I fear, by the recent agricultural distress), which Caird and other authorities place at 60 per cent. Mr. Giffen apparently c
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Government, instrument of. (search)
Honiton, 1; Dorsetshire, 6; Dorchester, 1; Weymouth and Melcomb-Regis, 1; Lyme-Regis, 1; Poole, 1; Durham, 2; City of Durham, 1; Essex, 13; Malden, 1; Colchester, 2; Gloucestershire, 5; Gloucester, 2; Tewkesbury, 1; Cirencester, 1; Herefordshire, 4; Hereford, 1; Leominster, 1; Hertfordshire, 5; St. Alban's, 1; Hertford, 1; Huntingdonshire, 3; Huntingdon, 1; Kent, 11; Canterbury, 2; Rochester, 1; Maidstone, 1 ; Dover, 1; Sandwich, 1; Queenborough, 1; Lancashire, 4; Preston, 1; Lancaster, 1; Liverpool, 1; Manchester, 1; Leicestershire, 4; Leicester, 2; Lincolnshire, 10; Lincoln, 2; Boston, 1; Grantham, 1; Stamford, 1; Great Grimsby, 1; Middlesex, 4; London, 6; Westminster, 2; Monmouthshire, 3; Norfolk, 10; Norwich, 2; Lynn-Regis, 2; Great Yarmouth, 2; Northamptonshire, 6; Peterborough, 1; Northampton, 1; Nottinghamshire, 4; Nottingham, 2; Northumberland, 3; Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1; Berwick, 1; Oxfordshire, 5; Oxford City, 1; Oxford University, 1; Woodstock, 1; Rutlandshire, 2; Shropshire
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Great Eastern, the. (search)
, and 1,200 third-class. She had, besides, capacity for 5,000 tons of merchandise and 15,000 tons of coal. Curiously enough, after all these vast preparations, the ship, during all of her varied career, was never used in the East India trade at all. From the first she was unfortunate. In a test trip from Deptford to Portland Roads, in 1860, an explosion of one of the boilers occurred, when ten firemen were killed and many persons were wounded. The steamer started on her first trip from Liverpool to New York, June 17, 1860, making the trip in eleven days. She made her return trip in August in ten days. She made a number of trips to and from New York during the three years following, but, owing to the lack of freight at profitable rates, she was a source of loss to her owners. In 1864 she was chartered to convey the Atlantic submarine cable; carried the first cable in 1865, which broke in midocean, and also that of 1866, which was laid successfully. During this time, also, the Br
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hall, Newman 1816- (search)
ndon in 1841. He was pastor of the Albion Congregational Church in Hull in 1842-54. In the latter year he became pastor of Surrey Chapel, London. While the American Civil War was being waged, he was a strong friend of the Union, and at the conclusion of the war he made a lecturing tour of the United States for the purpose of promoting international good-will. This visit was afterwards commemorated by the construction, as a part of the new church on Westminster Road, of the Lincoln Tower, the cost of which was met by subscriptions from American and English citizens. His publications, which have met with much favor in the United States, include: The Christian philosopher; Italy, the land of the Forum and the Vatican; Lectures in America; Sermons and history of Surrey Chapel; From Liverpool to St. Louis; Pilgrims' songs; Prayer, its reasonableness and efficacy; The Lord's prayer; Songs of earth and Heaven; and a lecture on the assassination of President Lincoln, in London, in 1865.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hawthorne, Nathaniel 1804- (search)
Hawthorne, Nathaniel 1804- Author; born in Salem, Mass., July 4, 1804; was graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825. His first novel was published anonymously in Boston in 1832. In 1837 a number of his tales and sketches were published under the title of Twice-told tales. A second series appeared in 1842. From 1838 to 1841, he held a place in the Boston custom-house. Afterwards he lived at Brook Farm, a community of literary men and philosophers (see Brook farm Association). Marrying in 1843, he took up his abode at Concord. He became surveyor of the port of Salem. He afterwards settled in Lenox, Mass., and in 1852 returned to Concord. In 1853 he became United States consul at Liverpool, which place he resigned in 1857. His most popular writings are The scarlet letter, and The House of the seven Nathaniel Hawthorne. Gables. Septimus; American note-books; English note-books, etc., appeared after his death, which occurred in Plymouth, N. H., May 19, 1864.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Howe, Timothy Otis 1816-1883 (search)
Howe, Timothy Otis 1816-1883 Legislator; born in Liverpool, Me., Feb. 24, 1816; admitted to the bar in 1839, and began practice in Readfield; was elected to the legislature in 1840. Subsequently he removed to Wisconsin. He was circuit judge in 1850-56; then resumed practice. He was elected to the United States Senate as a Republican in 1861, and served till 1879; was a delegate to the International Monetary Conference in Paris in 1881; and was appointed Postmaster-General by President Arthur in December of the latter year. He died in Kenosha, Wis., March 25, 1883.
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