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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Everett, Edward, 1794-1865 (search)
war, there was by implication reserved to each State the right of seceding and then declaring war; that, though they expressly prohibited to the States and delegated to the United States the entire treaty-making power, they reserved by implication (for an express reservation is not pretended) to the individual States— to Florida, for instance—the right to secede, and then to make a treaty with Spain retroceding that Spanish colony, and thus surrendering to a foreign power the key to the Gulf of Mexico—to maintain propositions like these, with whatever affected seriousness it is done, appears to me egregious trifling. Pardon me, my friends, for dwelling on these wretched sophistries. But it is these which conducted the armed hosts of rebellion to your doors on the terrible and glorious days of July, and which have brought upon the whole land the scourge of an aggressive and wicked war—a war which can have no other termination compatible with the permanent safety and welfare of the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Farragut, David Glasgow -1870 (search)
s with him in the terrible fight at Valparaiso. He was promoted to commander in 1841, having served faithfully up to that time. Still persevering in duty, he was placed in very responsible positions afloat and ashore, and when the Civil War broke out he was in command of the Brooklyn, steam sloop-of-war. He commanded the naval expedition against New Orleans in the spring of 1862, having the Hartford as his flag-ship. Organizing the West Gulf blockading squadron, on his arrival in the Gulf of Mexico, by boldness and skill, with admirable assistants, he went up to New Orleans triumphantly. He operated with great vigor on the Mississippi River, afterwards, between New Orleans and Vicksburg; and on July 16, 1862, was placed first on the list of proposed admirals. In 1863 he co-operated in the capture of Port Hudson, and in August, 1864, defeated the Confederate forces in Mobile Bay. His exploits in the Gulf region gave him great fame, and in December, 1864, he received the thanks
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fillmore, Millard 1800- (search)
ited States, and were in the military possession of the United States at the date of the treaty of peace. By that treaty the title by conquest was confirmed and these territories, provinces, or departments separated from Mexico forever; and by the same treaty certain important rights and securities were solemnly guaranteed to the inhabitants residing therein. By the fifth article of the treaty it is declared that— The boundary-line between the two republics shall commence in the Gulf of Mexico 3 leagues from land, opposite the mouth of the Rio Grande, otherwise called Rio Bravo del Norte, or opposite the mouth of its deepest branch if it should have more than one branch emptying directly into the sea; from thence up the middle of that river, following the deepest channel where it has more than one, to the point where it strikes the southern boundary of New Mexico, thence westwardly along the whole southern boundary of New Mexico (which runs north of the town called Paso) to it
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Florida, (search)
rgeant Powell and three men. He said, Five minutes ago I was in command of this arsenal, but in consequence of the weakness of my command, I am obliged to surrender. . . . If I had force equal to, or half the strength of yours, I'll be d—--d if you would have entered that gate until you had passed over my dead body. You see that I have but three men. I now consider myself a prisoner of war. Take my sword, Captain Jones. Anxious to establish an independent empire on the borders of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida politicians met in convention early in January, 1861, at Tallahassee, the State capital. Colonel Petit was chosen chairman of the convention, and Bishop Rutledge invoked the blessing of the Almighty upon the acts they were about to perform. The members numbered sixty-nine, and about one-third of them were Co-operationists (see Mississippi). The legislature of Florida, fully prepared to co-operate with the convention, had convened at the same place on the 5th. On the 10th the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Floyd, John Buchanan 1807- (search)
ia historian of the war (Pollard) said, It was safely estimated that the South entered upon the war with 150,000 small-arms of the most approved modern pattern and the best in the world. Only a few days before Floyd left his office as Secretary of War and fled to Virginia he attempted to supply the Southerners with heavy ordnance also. On Dec. 20, 1860, he ordered forty columbiads and four 32-pounders to be sent from the arsenal at Pittsburg to an unfinished fort on Ship Island, in the Gulf of Mexico; and seventy-one columbiads and seven 32-pounders to be sent from the same arsenal to an embryo fort at Galveston, Tex., which would not be ready for armament in five years. When Quartermaster Taliaferro (a Virginian) was about to send off these heavy guns, an immense public meeting of citizens, called by the mayor, was held, and the guns were retained. When Floyd fled from Washington his successor, Joseph Holt, of Kentucky, countermanded the order. Indicted by the grand jury of the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fremont, John Charles 1813-1890 (search)
sippi, and assist in military operations against the batteries at Memphis. In the event of this movement being successful, he proposed to push on towards the Gulf of Mexico with his army, and take possession of New Orleans. More than 20,000 soldiers were set in motion (Sept. 27, 1861) southward (5,000 of them cavalry), under theith a profusion of alpine plants in brilliant bloom. From barometrical observations made during our three days sojourn at this place, its elevation above the Gulf of Mexico is 10,000 feet. During the day we had seen no sign of animal life; but among the rocks here we heard what was supposed to be the bleat of a young goat, which ers we had collected on our way. The barometer stood at 18.293, the attached thermometer at 44°, giving for the elevation of this summit 13,570 feet above the Gulf of Mexico, which may be called the highest flight of the bee. It is certainly the highest known flight of that insect. From the description given by Mackenzie of the m
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), French and Indian War. (search)
French and Indian War. A fourth intercolonial war between the English and French colonies in America was begun in 1754, in which the Indians, as usual, bore a conspicuous part. The English population (white) in the colonies was then a little more than 1,000,000, planted along the seaboard. The French were 100,000 strong, and occupied the regions of Nova Scotia, the St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes, and a line of trading-posts in the Valley of the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. The latter, as chiefly traders, had gained great influence over many of the Indian tribes. There was outward peace, but inward war, between the colonists, and it needed only a small matter to kindle a flame of hostilities. After the capture of Louisburg (1745), the French had taken measures to extend and strengthen their dominion in America. Their power became aggressive, and early in 1754 it was evident that they intended to hold military possession of the Ohio and the region around its head-waters.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), French domain in America. (search)
rench domain in America. On Oct. 7, 1763, the King of England (George III.), by proclamation, erected out of the territory acquired from the French by the treaty of Paris three provinces on the continent—namely, east Florida, west Florida, and Quebec; and an insular province styled Grenada. East Florida was bounded on the north by the St. Mary's River, the intervening region thence to the Altamaha being annexed to Georgia. The boundaries of west Florida were the Apalachicola, the Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi, and lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas; and on the north by a line due east from the mouth of the Yazoo River, so as to include the French settlements near Natchez. The boundaries of the province of Quebec were in accordance with the claims of New York and Massachusetts, being a line from the southern end of Lake Nepissing, striking the St. Lawrence at lat. 45° N., and following that parallel across the foot of Lake Champlain to the head-waters of the Connecticut River,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gadsden, James 1788-1858 (search)
Gadsden, James 1788-1858 Statesman; born in Charleston, S. C., May 15, 1788; graduated at Yale College in 1806. After a short career in business, he entered the army, and was made lieutenant-colonel of engineers. During the War of 1812, with Great Britain, his service was marked with distinction, and when peace was concluded he became aide to General Jackson in the expedition to investigate the military defences of the Gulf of Mexico and the southwestern frontier. Soon after he was appointed, with Gen. Simon Bernard, to review the examinations, and rendered a separate report, in which he differed from General Bernard. In 1818 he was made aide-de-camp to General Jackson, with whom he participated in the campaign against the Seminole Indians. Later he went with Jackson to Pensacola, when the latter took possession of Florida, and was the first white man to cross that peninsula from the Atlantic to the Gulf. In 1853 he was minister to Mexico, and on Dec. 10 of that year negoti
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Garfield, James Abram 1831-1881 (search)
cond, to occupy and develop the regions of the northern lakes; and, third, to descend the Mississippi and establish a fortified post at its mouth, thus securing an outlet for the trade of the interior and checking the progress of Spain on the Gulf of Mexico. In pursuance of this plan, we find La Salle and his companions, in January, 1679, dragging their cannon and materials for ship-building around the Falls of Niagara, and laying the keel of a vessel 2 leagues above the cataract, at the moparty of fifty-four Frenchmen and friendly Indians, set out for the present site of Chicago, and by way of the Illinois River reached the Mississippi, Feb. 6, 1682. He descended its stream, and on April 9, 1682, standing on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, solemnly proclaimed to his companions and to the wilderness that, in the name of Louis the Great, he took possession of the Great Valley watered by the Mississippi River. He set up a column, and inscribed upon it the arms of France, and nam
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