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A'ttalus 2. Son of Andromenes the Stymphaean, and one of Alexander's officers, was accused with his brothers, Amyntas and Simmias, of having been engaged in the conspiracy of Philotas, B. C. 330, but was acquitted, together with his brothers. [AMYNTAS, No. 4.] In B. C. 328, Attalus was left with Polysperchon and other officers in Bactria with part of the troops, while the king himself marched against the Sogdians. (Arrian, 4.16.) He accompanied Alexander in his expedition into India, and was employed in several important duties. (Arrian, 4.27, 5.12.) In Alexander's last illness, B. C. 323, he was one of the seven chief officers who passed the night in the temple of Serapis at Babylon, in order to learn from the god whether Alexander should be carried into the temple. (Arrian, 7.26.) After the death of Alexander, Attalus joined Perdiecas, whose sister, Atalante, he had married. He accompanied his brother-in-law in his unfortunate campaign against Egypt in B. C. 321, and had the comm
Bagi'stanes (*Bagista/nhs), a distinguished Babylonian, deserted Bessus and the conspirators, when Alexander was in pursuit of them and Dareius, B. C. 330, and informed Alexander of the danger of the Persian king. (Arrian, 3.21 ; Curt. 5.13
Barzanes 2. Appointed satrap of the Parthyaei by Bessus, B. C. 330, afterwards fell into the power of Alexander. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 4.7.)
m up to Alexander, according to circumstances. Soon after the flight of Dareius from Ecbatana (where, after the battle of Arbela, he had taken refuge), the conspirators, who had the Bactrian troops at their command, succeeded in possessing themselves of the king's person, and placed him in chains. But, being closely pressed in pursuit by Alexander, and having in vain urged Dareius to mount a horse and continue his flight with them, they filled up by his murder the measure of their treason, B. C. 330. (Curt. 5.9-13; Arr. Anab. iii. pp. 68, 69; Diod. 17.73; Plut. Alex. 42.) After this deed Bessus fled into Bactria, where he collected a considerable force, and assumed the name and insignia of royalty, with the title of Artaxerxes. (Curt. 6.6.13; Arr. Anab. iii. p. 71d.) On the approach of Alexander, he fled from him beyond the Oxus, but was at length betrayed by two of his followers, and fell into the hands of Ptolemy, whom Alexander had sent forward to receive him. (Curt. 7.5; Arr. Anab
Bi'sthanes (*Bisqa/nhs), the son of Artaxerxes Ochus, met Alexander near Ecbatana, in B. C. 330, and informed him of the flight of Dareius from that city. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 3.19
ding out great promises (apparently never realized) of assistance in men and money from Achaia, Megara, and Euboea. This seems to have been in B. C. 343, at the time of Philip's projected attempt on Ambracia. Aeschines of course ascribes his rival's support of Callias to corruption; but Demosthenes may have thought that Euboea, united under a strong government, might serve as an effectual barrier to Philip's ambition. (Aesch. c. Ctes. § 89, &c.; Dem. Philipp. 3.85; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. vi. p. 19.) In B. C. 341, the defeat by Phocion of the Macedonian party in Eretria and Oreus under Cleitarchus and Philistides gave the supremacy in the island to Callias. (Dem. de Cor. §§ 86, 99, &c.; Philipp. 3. §§ 23, 75, 79; Diod. 16.74; Plut. Dem. 17.) Callias seems to have been still living in B. C. 330, the date of the orations on "the Crown." See Aesch. c. Ctes. §§ 85, 87, who mentions a proposal of Demosthenes to confer on him and his brother Taurosthenes the honour of Athenian citiz
at the end of the 50th year (tw=|n/ e(/tel lh/gonti) of the first period (meg. su/ntac. 3.2, vol. i. p. 163, ed. Halma); and out of a number of other observations recorded by the same writer, all but two, according to Ideler, indicate the year B. C. 330, whilst four of them require the evening of June 28 for the epoch in question. It is not certain at what time the period came into civil use; it would naturally be employed not to supersede, but to correct from time to time, the Metonic reckoning. The inaccuracy of the latter must have become quite sensible in B. C. 330; and it is evident, from the praise which Diodorus (12.36) bestows upon it, that it could not have remained uncorrected down to his time. (Ideler, Hist. Untersuch. über die Astron. Beobachtungen der Alten, Berlin, 1806, p. 214, &c., Handbuch der Technischen Chronologie, Berlin, 1825, vol. i. p. 344, &c.; Petavius, Doctrin. Temp. 2.16; Scaliger, De Emend. Temp. lib. ii.; Delambre, Hist. de l'Astron. Ancienne, vol. i. p
Cara'nus 3. A Macedonian of the body called e(tai=roi or guards (comp. Plb. 5.53,, 31.3), was one of the generals sent by Alexander against Satibarzanes when he had a second time excited Aria to revolt. Caranus and his colleagues were successful, and Satibarzanes was defeated and slain, in the winter of B. C. 330. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 3.25,28; Curt. 6.6.20, &c., 7.3.2, Freinsheim, ad loc., 7.4.32, &c.; comp. Diod. 17.81.) In B. C. 329, Caranus was appointed, together with Andromachus and Menedemus, under the command of the Lycian Pharnuches, to act against Spitamenes, the revolted satrap of Sogdiana. Their approach compelled him to raise the siege of Maracanda; but, in a battle which ensued, he defeated them with the help of a body of Scythian cavalry, and forced them to fall back on the river Polytimetus, the wooded banks of which promised shelter. The rashness however or cowardice of Caranus led him to attempt the passage of the river with the cavalry under his command, and the rest
Cebali'nus (*Kebali=nos), a brother of Nicomachus, who lived on licentious terms with Dimnus, the author of the plot against the life of Alexander the Great in B. C. 330. Nicomachus acquainted his brother with the plot, and the latter revealed it to Philotas that he might lay it before the king; but as Philotas neglected to do so for two days, Cebalinus mentioned it to Metron, one of the royal pages, who immediately informed Alexander. Cebalinus was forthwith brought before the king, and orders were given to arrest Dimnus. (Curt. 6.7; Diod. 17.79.) [PHILOTAS
Cleander 4. One of Alexander's officers, son of Polemocrates. Towards the winter of B. C. 334, Alexauder, being then in Caria, sent him to the Peloponnesus to collect mercenaries, and with these he returned and joined the king while he was engaged in the siege of Tyre, B. C. 331. (Arr. Anab. 1.24, 2.20; Curt. 3.1.1, 4.3.11.) In B. C. 330 he was employed by Polydamas, Alexander's emissary, to kill Parmenion, under whom he had been left as second in command at Ecbatana. (Arr. Anab. 3.26; Curt. 7.2. §§ 19, 27-32 ; Plut. Alex. 49; Diod. 17.80; Just. 12.5.) On Alexander's arrival in Carmania, B. C. 325, Cleander joined him there, together with some other generals from Media and their forces. But he was accused with the rest of extreme profligacy and oppression, not unmixed with sacrilege, in his command, and was put to death by order of Alexander. (Arr. Anab. 6.27; Diod. 17.106; Plut. Alex. 68; Curt. 10.1. §§ 1-8; Just. 12.
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