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Apollodo'rus 16. Of GELA in Sicily, was, according to Suidas and Eudocia (p. 61), a contemporary of Menander, and accordingly lived between the years B. C. 340 and 290. Suidas and Eudocia attribute to him seven comedies, of which they give the titles. But while Suidas (s. v. *)Apollo/dwros) ascribes them to Apollodorus of Gela, he assigns one of these same comedies in another passage (s. v. spouda/zw) to the Carystian. Other writers too frequently confound the two comic poets. (Meineke, Hist. Cril. Comic. Graec. p. 459, &c.)
s, as well as his knowledge of men, was extended. The position in which he stood to Alexander occasioned and favoured several studies and literary works. In his extended researches into natural science, and particularly in his zoological investigations, he received not only from Philip, but in still larger measure from Alexander, the most liberal support, a support which stands unrivalled in the history of civilisation. (Aelian, Ael. VH 5.19; Athen. 9.398e.; Plin. Nat. 8.17.) In the year B. C. 340, Alexander, then scarcely seventeen years of age, was appointed regent by his father, who was about to make an expedition against Byzantium. From that time Aristotle's instruction of the young prince was chiefly restricted to advice and suggestion, which may very possibly have been carried on by means of epistolary correspondence. In the year B. C. 335, soon after Alexander ascended the throne, Aristotle quitted Macedonia for ever, and returned to Athens * The story that Aristotle accomp
g to Theopompus (apud Athen. xii . p. 532,) was with him a favourite residence, as supplying more opportunity for the indulgence of his profligate propensities than he could find at Athens. But in a speech of Demosthenes delivered in B. C. 341 (de Chers. p. 97) he is spoken of as possessing much influence at that time in the Atlenian councils ; and we may consider him therefore to have been one of those who authorized and defended the proceedings of Diopeithes against Philip in Thrace. In B. C. 340 he was appointed to the command of the force which was sent to aid Byzantium against Philip; but his character excited the suspicions of the Byzantians, and they refused to receive him. Against the enemy he effected nothing: his only exploits were against the allies of Athens, and these he plundered unscrupulously. He was accordingly superseded by Phocion, whose success was brilliant. (Diod. 16.74, &c.; Phil. Ep. ad Ath. ap. Dem. p. 163; Plut. Phoc. 14.) In 338 he was sent'to the aid of Am
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Crassus, Papi'rius 8. L. Papirius Crassus was made dictator in B. C. 340 while holding the office of praetor, in order to conduct the war against the revolted Latins, since the consul Manlius was ill at the time. Crassus marched against Antium, but was encamped in its neighbourhood for some months without accomplishing anything. In B. C. 336 he was made consul with K. Duilius, and carried on a war against the Ausonians of Cales. In 330 he was consul a second time, and carried on a war against the inhabitants of Privernum. They were commanded by Vitruvius Flaccus who was conquered by the Romans without much difficulty. In 325 Crassus was magister equitum to the dictator L. Papirius Cursor, and in 318 he was invested with the censorship. (Liv. 8.12, 16, 29; Diod. 17.29, 82; Cic. Fam. 9.21.)
Cursor 3. L. Papirius Cursor, a son of No. 2, does not occur in history till the time when he was made magister equitum to the dictator L. Papirius Crassus in B. C. 340. In B. C. 333 he was made consul with C. Poetelius Libo, and according to some annals he obtained the same office a second time in B. C. 326, the year in which the second Samnite war broke out. In the year following he was appointed dictator to conduct the war in place of the consul L. Camillus, who had been taken seriously ill. Cursor and his magister equitum, Q. Fabius, afterwards surnamed Maximus, were the most distinguished generals of the time. Shortly after Papirius had taken the field, a doubt as to the validity of the auspices he had taken be fore marching against the enemy, obliged him to return to Rome and take them again. Q. Fabius was left behind to supply his place, but with the express command to avoid every engagement with the enemy during the dictator's absence. But Fabius allowed himself to be drawn i
Da'mophon (damofw=n), a sculptor of Messene, was the only Messenian artist of any note. (Paus. 4.31.8.) His time is doubtful. Heyne and Winckelmann place him a little later than Phidias; Quatremère de Quincy from B. C. 340 to B. C. 300. Sillig (Catal. Art. s. v. Demophon) argues, from the fact that he adorned Messene and Megalopolis with his chief works, that he lived about the time when Messene was restored and Megalopolis was built. (B. C. 372-370.) Pausanias mentions the following works of Damophon: At Aegius in Achaia, a statue of Lucina, of wood, except the face, hands, and toes, which were of Pentelic marble, and were, no doubt, the only parts uncovered: also, statues of Hygeia and Asclepius in the shrine of Eileithyia and Asclepius, bearing the artist's name in an iambic line on the base: at Messene, a statue of the Mother of the Gods, in Parian marble, one of Artemis Laphria, and several marble statues in the temple of Asclepius: at Megalopolis, wooden statues of Hermes and A
Deme'trius artists. 1. An architect, who, in conjunction with Paeonius, finished the great temple of Artemis at Ephesus, which Chersiphron had begun about 220 years before. He probably lived about B. C. 340, but his date cannot be fixed with certainty. Vitruvius calls him servus Dianae, that is, a i(ero/doulos. (Vitruv. vii. Praef. § 16; CHERSIPHRON.
Demo'crates 3. An Epicurean philosopher, who according to Plutarch (c. Epicur. p. 1100) was charged by Epicurus with having copied from his works. He may possibly be the same as the Democrates who according to the same Plutarch (Polit. Praecept. p. 803) lived at Athens about B. C. 340.
sed indignation of the Athenians burst forth. The peace with Philip was now declared violated (B. C. 340); a fleet was sent to relieve Byzantium (Plut. Phoc. 14), and Philip was compelled to withdraw260, &c.) He thus at once gave a fresh impulse to the maritime power and enterprise of Athens, B. C. 340. Philip now assumed the appearance of giving himself no further concern about the affairs ofe the last stroke at the independence of Greece. He calculated well; for when in the spring of B. C. 340 the Amphictyons assembled at Delphi, Aeschines, who was present as pylagoras, effected a decreth\n *)Epistolh\n th\n *Fili/ppou *Pro\s th\n *)Epistolh\n th\n *Fili/ppou refers to the year B. C. 340, but is a spurious oration. Becker, Philip. Reden, ii. p. 516, &c. B. Other Political Oratiori/nhs; Schaefer, Appar. Crit. v. p. 473.) 58. *Kata\ *Neai/ras *Kata\ *Neai/ras, refers to B. C. 340, but is considered spurious both by ancient and modern writers. (Dionys. de Admir. vi die. Dem
was arraigned by the Macedonian party, not only for his aggression on the king's territory, but also for the means (unjust doubtless and violent, but common enough with all Athenian generals at the time,) to which he resorted for the support of his mercenaries. He was defended by Demosthenes in the oration, still extant, on the Chersonese, B. C. 341, and the defence was successful, for he was permitted to retain his command. After this, and probably during the war of Philip with Byzantium (B. C. 340), Diopeithes again invaded the Macedonian territory in Thrace, took the towns of Crobyle and Tiristasis and enslaved the inhabitants, and when an ambassador, named Amphilochus, came to negotiate for the release of the prisoners, he seized his person in defiance of all international law, and compelled him to pay nine talents for his ransom. (Argumentum ad Dem. de Chers.; Dem. de Chers. passim; Phil. Ep. ad Ath. pp. 159, 160, 161.) The enmity of Diopeithes to Philip appears to have recommend
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