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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Dareius Nothus (search)
marriage his sister Parysatis, the daughter of Xerxes I. When SOGDIANUS, another bastard son of Artaxerxes, had murdered the king, Xerxes II., he called Ochus to his court. Ochus promised to go. but delayed till he had collected a large army, and then he declared war against Sogdianus. Arbarius, the commander of the royal cavalry, Arxames, the satrap of Egypt, and Artoxares, the satrap of Armenia, deserted to him, and placed the diadem upon his lead, according to Ctesias, against his will, B. C. 424-423. Sogdianus gave himself up to Ochus, and was put to death. Ochus now assumed the name of Dareius. He was completely under the power of three eunuchs, Artoxares, Artibarxanes, and Athoiis, and of his wife, Parysatis, by whom, before his accession, he had two children, a daughter Amistris, and a son Arsaces, who succeeded him by the name of Artaxerxes (II. Mnemon). After his accession, Parysatis bore him a son, Cyrus [Cyrus the Younger], and a daughter, Artosta. He had other children, a
Demo'docus 2. One of the Athenian generals, who commanded a fleet in the Hellespont, and in the spring of B. C. 424, recovered the town of Antanrus. (Thuc. 4.75.) Another person of this name is mentioned by Polybius. (5.95.) [L.S]
Demo'philus artists. 1. Of Himera, a painter, who flourished about B. C. 424, was said by some to have been the teacher of Zeuxis. (Plin. Nat. 35.9. s. 36.2; ZEUTXI.
archers and targeteers. he effected the achievement, then almost incredible, of forcing the Spartans to lay down their arms. (Thuc. 4.2-40; Diod. 12.61-63.) The glory of this success was with the vulgar given to Cleon, yet Demosthenes must have surely had some proportion of it. He was probably henceforth in general esteem, as in the Knights of Aristophanes, coupled at the head of the list of the city's generals with the high-born and influential Nicias. We find him in the following year (B. C. 424) commanding with Hippocrates in the operation in the Megarid; possessing himself by a stratagem of the Long Walls uniting Megara to Nisaea, and receiving shortly the submission of Nisaea itself, though baffled by the advance of Brasidas in the main design on Megara. Soon after, he concerted with the same colleague a grand attempt on Boeotia. On a fixed day Hippocrates was to lead the whole Athenian force into the south-eastern frontier, and occupy Delium, while Demosthenes was to land at S
s relation, although he knew more about it, under the pretext that he thought it objectionable to say anything in praise of a man who was so hostile to the gods (*Deoi=s e)xqro\n *Diago/ran). But still he informs us, that Diagoras assisted Nicodorus in his legislation, which he himself praises as very wise and good. Wachsmuth (Hellen. Alterth. 1.2, p. 90) places this political activity of the two friends about the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. We find Diagoras at Athens as early as B. C. 424, for Aristophanes in the Clouds (830), which were performed in that year, alludes to him as a well-known character; and when Socrates, as though it were a mistake, is there called a Melian, the poet does so in order to remind his hearers at once of Diagoras and of his attacks upon the popular religion. In like manner Hippon is called a Melian, merely because he was a follower of Diagoras. It can scarcely be doubted that Diagoras was acquainted with Socrates, a connexion which is described
p. 19, 20; comp. Hartung. Eurip. Rest. pp. 41, &c., 401, &c. Hecuba. Hecuba. This play must have been exhibited before B. C. 423, as Aristophanes parodies a passage of it in the Clouds (1148), which he brought out in that year. Müller says that the passage in the Hecuba (645, ed. Pors.), ste/nei de\ kai/ tis k. t. l., " seems to refer to the misfortunes of the Spartans at Pylos in B. C. 425." This is certainly possible ; and, if it is the case, we may fix the refresentation the play in B. C. 424. Heracleidae. Heracleidae. Müller refers it, by conjecture, to, B. C. 421. Supplices. Supplices. This also he refers, by conjecture, to about the same period. Ion, Ion, of uncertain date. Hercules Furens, Hercules Furens, of uncertain date. Andromache, Andromache, referred by Müller, on conjecture, to the 90th Olympiad. (B. C. 420-417.) Troades. Troades. B. C. 415. Electra, Electra, assigned by Müller, on conjecture and from internal evidence, to the period of t
Hermo'crates (*(Ermokra/ths). 1. Son of Hermon, a Syracusan, and one of the most eminent citizens of that state at the time of the Athenian invasion. We have no account of his early life or rise, but his family must have been illustrious, for, according to Timaeus (apud Longin. 4.3; comp. also Plut. Nic. 1), it claimed descent from the god Hermes, and it is evident that he was a person of consideration and influence in the state as early as B. C. 424, as he was one of the deputies sent by the Syracusans to the general congress of the Greek cities of Sicily, held at Gela in the summer of that year. Thucydides, who puts a long speech into his mouth on that occasion, ascribes mainly to his influence the resolution adopted by the assembled deputies to terminate the troubles of Sicily by a general peace. (Thuc. 4.58, 65; Timaeus, apud Polyb. xii. Frag. Vat. 22.) In 415, when the news of the impending invasion from Athens came to be generally rife, though still discredited by many, Hermo
Hippo'crates 5. An Athenian, son of Ariphron, was general, together with Demosthenes, in the eighth year of the Peloponnesian war (B. C. 424), when the democratic party at Megara, becoming apprehensive of the recal of the exiles, and of a revolution in consequence, made overtures to the Athenians to betray the city into their hands. Demosthenes and Hippocrates immediately marched, with a select body of troops, to take advantage of this opportunity, and, with the assistance of their partisans, made themselves masters of the long walls which connected Megara with its port of Nisaea, but were unable to effect an entrance into the city itself. Thus foiled in part of their enterprise, they turned their arms against Nisaea, in which there was a Peloponnesian garrison, but this was speedily compelled, by want of provisions, to capitulate, and the Athenians became masters of this important port. Brasidas soon after arrived with a considerable army, and by his influence secured the predominan
Julus 6. Sex. Julius Julus, consular tribune in B. C. 424, with three colleagues. (Liv. 4.35; Diod. 12.82.)
, 836.) The Scholiast thinks that Aristophanes, in the Wasps, meant no reference to Laches in the arraignment of the dog Labes, for cheese-stealing. But the name of Laches' demus Aexone (comp. Plat. Lach. p. 197), and the special mention of Sicilian cheese, seem to fix the allusion beyond dispute, while by the accusing dog, the ku/wn *Kudaqhnaieu/s, himself as great a filcher, Cleon is as evidently intended. Laches, we find from Plato (Lach. p. 181), was present at the battle of Delium, in B. C. 424. In B. C. 421 he was one of the commissioners for concluding the fifty years' truce between Athens and Sparta, as well as the separate treaty between these states in the same year. He was also one of the commanders of the force sent to Argos, in B. C. 418, when Alcibiades induced the Argives to break the truce made in their name with the Lacedaemonians, by Thrasyllus and Alciphron; and in the same year he fell at the battle of Mantineia, together with his colleague Nicostratus. (Thuc. 5.19
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