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th, and recommended that they should be kept in custody in the free towns of Italy. This speech made a great impression upon the senate, and many who had already given their opinion in favour of death began to hesitate; but the speech of M. Cato confirmed the wavering, and carried the question in favour of death. Cato openly charged Caesar as a party to the conspiracy, and as he left the senate-house his life was in danger from the Roman knights who guarded Cicero's person. The next year, B. C. 62, Caesar was praetor. On the very day that he entered upon his office, he brought a proposition before the people for depriving Q. Catulus of the honour of completing the restoration of the Capitol, which had been burnt down in B. C. 83, and for assigning this office to Pompey. This proposal was probably made more for the sake of gratifying Pompey's vanity, and humbling the aristocracy, than from any desire of taking vengeance upon his private enemy. As however it was most violently opposed
Calvi'nus 4. Cn. Domitius Calvinus, M. F. M. N., appears, in B. C. 62, as legate of L. Valerius Flaccus in Asia, and in B. C. 59 as tribune of the people, in which capacity he supported the consul M. Bibulus against the other consul, C. Julius Caesar, and the tribune Vatinius, who allowed himself to be used by Caesar as a tool. Three years later, Calvinus was praetor, and presided at the trials of L. Calpurnius Bestia, who was accused of ambitus, and of M. Caelius, who was charged with having attempted to poison Clodia. In B. C. 54 he offered himself as a candidate for the consulship, on which occasion he, as well as his competitors, was guilty of enormous bribery; and, in conjunction with C. Memmius, he entered into a most disgraceful compact with the consuls of the year, who were to preside at the elections. The two candidates promised to procure for the consuls in office certain lucrative provinces by perjury, if they would lend them their assistance in the elections; and in case
mployment for which he felt no vocation, Cicero returned to the senate as a private individual (B. C. 62), and engaged in several angry contests with the obnoxious tribune. But after the excitement octhe end of B. C. 63, but before 10th Dec. [Murena.] ** Contra Concionem Q. Metelli, 3rd Jan., B. C. 62. [METELLUS.] Pro P. Cornelio Sulla, B. C. 62. [SULLA.] ** In Clodium et Curionem, B. C. 61.B. C. 62. [SULLA.] ** In Clodium et Curionem, B. C. 61. [See M. TULLIUS.] [Pro A. Licinio Archia. Generally assigned to B. C. 61. [ARCHIAS.] ] Pro Scipione Nasica, B. C. 60. (Ad Att. 2.1.) Pro L. Valerio Flacco, B. C. 59. [L. FLACCUS.] Pro A. Minuformal congratulation to Pompey on his success in the Mithridatic war, written in the course of B. C. 62, and terminating with a note to Cassius, despatched about the beginning of July, B. C. 43, annowhich eleven were written in the years B. C. 68, 67, 65, and 62, the remainder after the end of B. C. 62, and the last in Nov. B. C. 44. (Ad Att. 16.15.) They are for the most part in chronological or
Ci'cero 6. Q. Tullius Cicero, son of No. 2, was born about B. C. 102, and was educated along with his elder brother, the orator, whom he accompanied to Athens in B. C. 79. (De Fin. 5.1.) In B. C. 67 he was elected aedile, and held the office of praetor in B. C. 62. After his period of service in the city had expired, he succeeded L. Flaccus as governor of Asia, where he remained for upwards of three years, and during his administration gave great offence to many, both of the Greeks and of his own countrymen, by his violent temper, unguarded language, and the corruption of his favourite freedman, Statius. The murmurs arising from these excesses called forth from Marcus that celebrated letter (ad Q. Fr. 1.2), in which, after warning him of his faults and of the unfavourable impression which they had produced, he proceeds to detail the qualifications, duties, and conduct of a perfect provincial ruler. Quintus returned home in B. C. 58, soon after his brother had gone into exile, and on h
Corne'lius 4. C. Cornelius, a Roman knight, and one of Catiline's crew, undertook, in conjunction with L. Vargunteius to murder Cicero in B. C. 63, but their plan was frustrated by information conveyed to Cicero through Curius and Fulvia. When accused subsequently, he could obtain no one to defend him; but he escaped punishment probably on account of the information he gave respecting the conspiracy. When P. Sulla was accused in B. C. 62 of participation in the conspiracy, Cornelius caused his son to come frward as a witness against him. (Sal. Cat. 17, 28; Cic. pro Sull. 2, 6, 18.)
Corni'ficius 2. Q. Cornificius, was one of the judices on the trial of Verres, and tribune of the plebs in the following year, B. C. 69. He probably obtained the praetorship in 66, and was one of Cicero's competitors for the consulship in 64. His failure, however, did not make him an enemy of the great orator; he seems to have assisted him in the suppression of the Catilinarian conspiracy, and it was to his care that Cethegus was committed upon the arrest of the conspirators. Subsequently in B. C. 62, Cornificius was the first to bring before the senate the sacrilege of Clodius in violating the mysteries of the Bona Dea. He probably died soon afterwards, as we hear nothing further of him. He is called by Asconius "vir sobrius ac sanctus." (Cic. in Verr. Act. 1.10; Ascon. in Tog. Cand. p. 82; Cic. Att. 1.1; Sal. Cat. 47; Appian, App. BC 2.5; Cic. Att. 1.13.)
Fabri'cius 2. L. Fabricius, C. F., perhaps a son of No. 1, was eurator viarum in B. C. 62, and built a new bridge of stone, which connected the city with the island in the Tiber, and which was called, after him, pons Fabricius. The time at which the bridge was built is expressly mentioned by Dio Cassius (37.45), and the name of its author is still seen on the remnants of the bridge, which now bears the name of ponte quattro capi. On one of the arches we read the inscription: "L. FABRICIUS CUR. VIAR. FACIUNDUM COERAVIT IDEMQUE PROBAVIT, C. F. ;" and on another arch there is the following addition: "Q. LEPIDUS, M. F., M. LOLLIU, M. F., EX S. C. PROBAVERUNT," which probably refers to a restoration of the bridge by Q. Lepidus and M. Lollius. The scholiast on Horace (Sat. 2.3, 36) calls the Fabricius who built that bridge a consul, but this is obviously a mistake. (Becker, Handbuch d. Röm. Alterthümer, vol. i. p. 699.) There is also a coin bearing the name of L. Fabricius. (Eckhel, Doctr.
Ju'nia 2. The daughter of Servilia and D. Junius Silanus, consul in B. C. 62. She was also the halfsister of M. Junius Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, who was the son of Servilia by her first husband, M. Junius Brutus, tribune of the plebs in B. C. 83. Junia was married to M. Lepidus, subsequently the triumvir. When Cicero was in Cilicia, in B. C. 50, he was told that she was not faithful to Lepidus: he speaks of her portrait being found among the chattels of the debauchee P. Vedius, and expresses his surprise at her brother and husband taking no notice of her conduct. He afterwards speaks of her in one of the Philippics in terms of praise (probatissima uxor). She seems, at all events, to have won the affections of her husband; and when she became involved in the conspiracy formed by her son Lepidus against the life of Octavian, after the battle of Actium, her husband offered to become security for her. (Cic. Att. 6.1, 14.8, Phil. 13.4; Vell. 2.88; Appian, App. BC 4.50.)
ll as by the whole aristocratical party at Rome, who were alarmed at the increasing power of Pompey, and sought in Lucullus a rival and antagonist to the object of their fears. But his character was ill adapted for the turbulent times in which he lived; and, instead of putting himself prominently forward as the leader of a party he soon began to withdraw gradually from public affairs, and devote himself more and more to a life of indolence and luxury. After the return of Pompey, however, in B. C. 62, he took a leading part, together with Metellus Creticus, Cato, and others of the aristocratic party, in opposing the indiscriminate ratification of the acts of Pompey in Asia. By their combined efforts they succeeded in delaying the proposed measure for more than two years, but at the same time produced the effect, which they had doubtless not anticipated, of forcing Pompey into the arms of the opposite faction, and thus bringing about the coalition known as the First Triumvirate. (Plut. L
Ma'rius 8. L. Marius, was tribune of the plebs with Cato Uticensis, B. C. 62, and in conjunction with him, brought forward a law De Triumphis (V. Max. 2.8.1).
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