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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), French and Indian War. (search)
he leadership of the inefficient Lord Loudoun. William Pitt at this time took the chief control of public affairs in England, and prepared to prosecute the war in America with vigor. Gen. James Abercrombie was placed in chief command in America in 1758, and Admiral Boscawen was sent with a fleet to co-operate. Louisburg, Fort Ticonderoga, and Fort Duquesne were to be attacked. Louisburg was captured, but Abercrombie, who led the troops towards Lake Chainplain, failed in his attack on Ticonderoga. Fort Frontenac, at the foot of Lake Ontario, was captured; so, also, was Fort Duquesne, and its name was changed to Fort Pitt, in compliment to the great prime minister. These suecesses so alarmed the Indians that, having assembled in council, they agreed not to fight the English any more. Pitt now resolved to conquer Canada. General Amherst was placed in chief command in America, in the spring of 1759, and a land and naval force was sent over from England. Again three expeditions
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Frontenac, Fort (search)
Frontenac, Fort A fortification built by Frontenac in 1673 at the foot of Lake Ontario, at the present Kingston. After the repulse of the English at Ticonderoga (July 8, 1758), Col. John Bradstreet urged Abercrombie to send an expedition against this fort. He detached 3,000 men for the purpose, and gave Colonel Bradstreet command of the expedition. He went by the way of Oswego, and crossed the lake in bateaux, having with him 300 bateau-men. His troops were chiefly provincials, and were furnished with eight pieces of cannon and two mortars. They landed within a mile of the fort on the evening of Aug. 25, constructed batteries, and opened them upon the fort at short range two days afterwards Finding the works untenable, the garrison surrendered (Aug. 27) without much resistance. The Indians having previously deserted, there were only 110 prisoners. The spoils were sixty cannon, sixteen mortars, a large quantity of small arms, provisions and military stores, and nine armed v
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Haldimand, Sir Frederick 1728-1791 (search)
Haldimand, Sir Frederick 1728-1791 Military officer; born in Neuchatel, Switzerland, in October, 1728; served for some time in the Prussian army, and, in 1754, entered the British military service. He came to America in 1757, and as lieutenant-colonel distinguished himself at Ticonderoga (1758) and Oswego (1759). He accompanied Amherst to Montreal in 1760. In 1767 he was employed in Florida, and became major-general in 1772. Returning to England in 1775 to give the ministry information respecting the colonies, he was commissioned a major-general (Jan. 1, 1776), and in 1777 a lieutenant-general and lieutenant-governor of Quebec, where he succeeded Carleton as governor in 1778. He ruled in an arbitrary manner until 1784, when he returned to England. He died in Yverdun, Switzerland, June 5, 1791.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Haviland, William 1718- (search)
Haviland, William 1718- Military officer; born in Ireland in 1718; served in the British army at Carthagena and Porto Bello; and was aide to General Blakeney in suppressing the rebellion of 1745. He was lieutenant-colonel under Loudon in America (1757) ; served with Abercrombie at Ticonderoga (1758), and under Amherst (1759-60), entering Montreal with the latter officer in September, 1760. He was senior brigadier-general and second in command at the reduction of Martinique in 1762, and at the siege of Havana. He was made lieutenant-general in 1772, and general in 1783, and died Sept. 16, 1784.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Howe, George Augustus, Viscount 1724- (search)
merican) Regiment. Later in the year he was made colonel of the 55th Foot, and soon afterwards brigadier-general, and sent to America with General Abercrombie in the spring of 1758. He led the right wing of the army in the expedition against Ticonderoga. At the head of an advanced party, he met a detachment of French troops in the forest between the foot of Lake George and Ticonderoga, and in a skirmish with them was killed at the outset on July 8, 1758. His body was taken back to the head Ticonderoga, and in a skirmish with them was killed at the outset on July 8, 1758. His body was taken back to the head of the lake, and thence to Albany, by Maj. Philip Schuyler, where it was entombed in the family vault of the Schuylers. There it remained several years. The remains were finally placed in a leaden coffin and deposited under the chancel of St. Peter's Church, in Albany. When his remains were taken from the vault his hair, which had been cut short as an example for his soldiers, had grown to long, flowing and beautiful locks. The province of Massachusetts erected a monument to his memory in
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Howe, Richard, Earl 1725-1799 (search)
Howe, Richard, Earl 1725-1799 Naval officer; born in England, March 19, 1725; was educated at Westminster and Eton; and succeeded to the Irish viscounty and the family estate on the death of his brother, George Augustus Howe, killed near Ticonderoga in 1758. In 1739 he was a midshipman in Anson's fleet, and was made post-captain for gallantry in 1745. He entered Parliament in 1757, and in 1765 was made treasurer of the British navy. In October, 1770, he was promoted to Richard Howe. rearadmiral of the blue, and in 1776 was sent to command the British fleet on the American station, charged with a commission, jointly with his brother, William Howe, to make peace with or war upon the Americans. They failed to secure peace, and made war. After leaving the Delaware with his fleet, in 1778, he had an encounter off Rhode Island with a French fleet, under the Count d'estaing, when he disappeared from the American waters. In 1782 he was made admiral of the blue, and created an Eng
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hubbardton, battle at. (search)
Hubbardton, battle at. Generals Fraser and Riedesel, with British and German troops, began a pursuit of the Americans as soon as their flight from Ticonderoga was discovered. They overtook their rear-guard, about 1,200 strong, July 7, 1777, at Hubbardton, Vt. The main body of St. Clair's army had marched towards Castleton, leaving the rear-guard, under Col. Seth Warner, to gather up stragglers. While waiting their arrival, Warner was struck by the van of the pursuers, and a sharp engagement took place. Colonel Francis, of New Hampshire, was killed. The Americans were dispersed, and fled, excepting 200 who were made prisoners. The pursuers lost almost as many in killed and wounded, and soon gave up the chase. St. Clair, with about 200 men, made his way through the woods to Fort Edward. The Americans also lost 120 in killed and wounded. The British captured about 200 stand of arms.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Long, Pierce 1739- (search)
Long, Pierce 1739- Legislator; born in Portsmouth, N. H., in 1739; was a member of the Provincial Congress of New Hampshire in 1775, and became colonel of a regiment, which he commanded in the retreat from Ticonderoga in July, 1777. He defeated a pursuing British force at Fort Anne, and was serving as a volunteer at the time of the surrender of Burgoyne. Colonel Long was in Congress from 1784 to 1786; a State councillor from 1786 to 1789; and collector of the port of Portsmouth at the time of his death, April 3, 1789.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Nixon, John 1725-1815 (search)
Nixon, John 1725-1815 Military officer; born in Framingham, Mass., March 4, 1725; was a soldier at the capture of Louisburg in 1745; served in the army and navy seven years; fought at Ticonderoga under Abercrombie, leading a company as captain. He led a company of minute-men at Lexington, and commanded a regiment at Bunker Hill, receiving a wound from which he never fully recovered. He was made a brigadier-general in 1776, and commanded a brigade in the battle of Stillwater, in which engagement a cannonball passed so near his head that it permanently impaired the sight of one eye and the hearing of one ear. Resigned Sept. 12, 1780. He died in Middlebury, Vt., March 24, 1815.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Oswald, Eleazar 1755-1795 (search)
Oswald, Eleazar 1755-1795 Military officer; born in England about 1755; came to America in 1770 or 1771; served under Arnold in the expedition against Ticonderoga and became his secretary; and at the siege of Quebec he commanded with great skill the forlorn hope after Arnold was wounded. In 1777 he was made lieutenant-colonel of Lamb's artillery regiment, and for his bravery at the battle of Monmouth General Knox highly praised him. Soon after that battle he left the service and engaged in the printing and publishing business in Philadelphia, where he was made public printer. Oswald challenged General Hamilton to fight a duel in 1789, but the quarrel was adjusted. In business in England in 1792, he went to France, joined the French army, and commanded a regiment of artillery. He died in New York, Sept. 30, 1795.
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