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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chinese exclusion acts. (search)
y prohibited. Notwithstanding this exclusion act, many Chinamen still found entrance into the United States by first landing in British Columbia, whence they were systematically smuggled across the border. It was estimated that the number of laborers thus surreptitiously introduced into the United States averaged not less than 1,500 per year for several years after the passage of the law. The feeling against the Chinese was especially strong on the Pacific slope. A bill promoted by Representative Geary, of California, and known as the Geary Act, became law May 5, 1892. By this measure the previous exclusion acts of 1882, 1884, and 1888 were re-enacted for ten years; all Chinamen were required to obtain certificates of residence, in default of which they were to be deported at the expense of the United States. Only about 12,000 out of 100,000 complied with the law. The question of its constitutionality was settled by a decision of the United States Supreme Court, May 15, 1893.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Clem, John L. 1851- (search)
ing, with a musket in his hand, by a mounted Confederate colonel, who called out, Stop! You little Yankee devil! The boy halted and brought his musket to an order, when the colonel rode up to make him a prisoner. With a swift movement, young Clem brought his gun up and fired, killing the colonel John L. Clem. instantly. He escaped; and for this exploit on the battle-field he was made a sergeant, put on duty at headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland, and placed on the Roll of Honor. In 1871 he was appointed a second lieutenant in the 24th United States Infantry; in 1874 was promoted to first lieutenant; in 1882 to captain and assistant quartermaster; and in 1895 to major and quartermaster. In 1875 he was graduated at the Artillery School. He was long familiarly known as Johnny Clem, the drummer-boy of Chickamauga, and since his connection with the army has made himself very popular among his immediate superiors, and won and held the esteem of the authorities in Washington.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cleveland, Grover 1837- (search)
x co., N. J., March 18, 1837. After some experience as a clerk and some labor on the compilation of the American herd book, he became a bank clerk in Buffalo, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. From 1863 to 1865 he was assistant district-attorney, and in 1870 he was elected sheriff of Erie county and served three years. Elected mayor of Buffalo in 1881, he attracted during the first few months of his term more than local notice, and was the Democratic candidate for governor of New York in 1882. One of the successful nominees in this tidal-wave Democratic year, Mr. Cleveland received the phenomenal majority of 192,000, and entered office in January, 1883. His administration of affairs at Albany secured the presentation of his name to the democratic National Convention in 1884. He was nominated; and elected, after a close and exciting struggle, over James G. Blaine, and was inaugurated March 4, 1885 (see cabinet, President's). President Cleveland, in his famous message to Congress
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Coan, Titus 1801-1882 (search)
Coan, Titus 1801-1882 Missionary; born in Killingsworth, Conn., Feb. 1, 1801; graduated at Auburn Theological Seminary in 1833. With his wife and six others he sailed for Hawaii, Dec. 5, 1834, and reached Honolulu in July, 1835. His labors met with great success. In 1838-40 he made over 7,000 converts, and his subsequent efforts increased this number to 13,000. His publications include Life in Hawaii, etc. He died in Hilo, Hawaii, Dec. 1, 1882.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cobb, Jonathan Holmes 1799-1882 (search)
Cobb, Jonathan Holmes 1799-1882 Manufacturer; born in Sharon, Mass., July 8, 1799; graduated at Harvard College in 1817; and was one of the first to introduce the manufacture of silk in the United States. In 1831 he published Manual of the Mulberry-tree and the culture of silk. Two years later Congress ordered 2,000 copies of this work for public distribution to promote the cultivation of mulberry-trees. In 1835 Mr. Cobb became superintendent of the first silk-manufacturing company organized in New England. He died in Dedham, Mass., March 12, 1882.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Colquitt, Alfred Holt 1824- (search)
Colquitt, Alfred Holt 1824- Statesman; born in Walton county, Ga., April 20, 1824; graduated at Princeton in 1844; admitted to the bar in 1845; served throughout the Mexican War as staff officer; in 1852 was elected to Congress; in 1859 was a member of the State legislature. He favored the secession of Georgia and entered the Confederate army, in which he rose to the rank of majorgeneral. In 1876 he was elected governor of the State, and in 1882 United States Senator. He died March 26, 1884.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Conger, Edwin Hurd 1843- (search)
Conger, Edwin Hurd 1843- Diplomatist; born in Knox county, Ill., March 7, 1843; graduated at Lombard University, Galesburg, Ill., in 1862; served in the 102d Illinois Regiment in the Civil War from 1862-65; and was brevetted major. After the war he entered the Albany Law School, where he graduated in 1866; practised law in Galesburg, Ill.; and after 1868 was enagaged in banking and stockraising in Iowa. He was State treasurer Edwin Hurd Conger. of Iowa in 1882-85; member of Congress in 1885-91; and minister to Brazil in 1891-95, being reappointed to the latter post in 1897. On Jan. 12, 1898, he was transferred to China, and served in Peking during the critical days of the Boxer uprising in 1900, and the subsequent negotiations for peace and the restoration of order in that country. See China.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Conkling, Roscoe 1829-1888 (search)
s A. Garfield, when an influential federal appointment was made in New York City, Senator Conkling and his associate, Senator Platt, claiming that they should have been consulted concerning such an appointment in their State, resigned. At the ensuing session of the State legislature, the two ex-Senators failed to secure re-election, and Mr. Conkling retired to the practice of law in New York City. He was offered by President Arthur a seat on the bench of the United States Supreme Court in 1882, but declined. He died in New York City, April 18, 1888. Renominating Grant. The following is Senator Conkling's speech before the National Republican Convention, in Chicago, on June 6, 1880, nominating General Grant for a third Presidential term: When asked what State he hails from, Our sole reply shall be, He came from Appomattox And its famous apple-tree. In obedience to instruction I should never dare to disregard—expressing, also, my own firm convictions—I rise to propos
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Conrad, Joseph 1830-1891 (search)
Conrad, Joseph 1830-1891 Military officer; born in Wied-Selters, Germany, May 17, 1830; graduated at the Hesse-Darmstadt Military Academy in 1848; settled in Missouri; and joined the National army at the beginning of the Civil War in the 3d Missouri Infantry. He was present at many important actions during the war; was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers at its close; joined the regular army in 1866; and was retired with the rank of colonel in 1882. He died in Fort Randall, S. D., Dec. 4, 1891.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cox, Samuel Sullivan 1824-1889 (search)
Cox, Samuel Sullivan 1824-1889 Statesman; born in Zanesville, O., Sept. 30, 1824: graduated at Brown University in 1846: became editor of the Statesman of Columbus, O., in 1853; was a Democratic Representative in Congress from Ohio in 1857-65; and from New York in 1868-82. During his service in Congress he secured an increase of salary for the letter-carriers throughout the country, and also an annual vacation without loss of pay. In 1885-86 he was United States minister to Turkey, and on his return was again elected to Congress. He was a pleasing speaker, writer, and lecturer. Chief among his many publications are Puritanism in politics; Eight years in Congress; Free land and free trade; Three decades of federal legislation; and The diplomat in Turkey. He died in New York City, Sept. 10, 1889.
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