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fire-arm having the bore spirally grooved, so as to impart a rotary motion to the bullet and cause it to keep one point constantly in front during its flight. Grooved-bored small-arms are said to have been in use as far back as 1498; these, however, do not seem to have been rifled in the proper acceptation of the term, the grooves being straight and intended merely to prevent fouling of the bore and facilitate cleaning. The grooves were made spiral by Koster of Birmingham, England, about 1620. In Berlin is a rifled cannon of 1664, with 13 grooves, and one in Munich of perhaps equal antiquity has 8 grooves. The French Carabineers had rifled arms in 1692. Pere Daniel, who wrote in 1693, mentions rifling the barrels of small-arms, and the practice was apparently well known at that time. Rifles were early used by the American settlers in their conflicts with the Indians; and their first successful employment in civilized warfare is said to have been by the colonists in the war
ed, and the pressure of steam performs the same office. This is like the Baptista Porta apparatus of A. D. 1660; De Caus, 1620; Marquis of Worcester, 1655. It has been said Hero merely collected these, and probably derived much from the sublime Arce accompanying figure. His description is too long for insertion. Solomon De Caus, perhaps a mythical personage, about 1620, is said to have written a book, Les Raisons des forces Mouvantes, and to have invented an engine somewhat after the stylteam upon water, as we have had occasion to observe, in the manner contrived by Baptista Porta, 1600, Solomon De Caus (?), 1620, and the Marquis of Worcester, 1633, differs in no essential respect from one of the devices exhibited in the Pneumatics oon upon the altar. Steamer for paper stock. The idea of Hero was revived by Baptista Porta in 1600; De Caus (?), in 1620; the Marquis of Worcester in 1633; Savery, in 1698. See steam-engine. Steamer. Steam-gage. (Steam.) An attachm
or drawing through a polishing-iron. By this galvanic method of tinning, wire which has been wound in a spiral, or iron of other shape, can be made quite white, which is an advantage over most other methods, where the wire is tinned in the fire and then drawn through a drawing-plate. Tin-plate. Iron-plate coated with tin by dipping it into a molten bath of the latter metal. The art of tinning plate-iron seems to have been invented in Bohemia, was carried from thence into Saxony, 1620, and other parts of Germany, whence the rest of Europe was supplied until near the end of the seventeenth century. The art was introduced into England by Yarranton about 1675. The iron used is charcoal iron, rolled into sheets of various thickness, according to the grade and size of the plates, which are cut into rectangular pieces of the required sizes. The processes are as follows:— Scaling. The plate is bent so as to enable it to stand when placed on edge, and is then pickled in
, and other materials upon linen, cotton, leather, and other substances, with oil, size, and cements, so as to make them serviceable for hangings and other purposes. His claim to priority was disputed, and it was stated to have been invented in 1620 by Francois of Rouen, where the business was carried on by father and son till the death of the latter, in 1748. Wooden blocks for printing the patterns in size were exhibited during the dispute. Nemetz describes the manufacture of wax-cloth he Ervais. Periwigs first worn in England about 1590. Judges wore full-bottomed wigs 1674. I bought two periwigs, one whereof cost me £ 3 and the other 40 s. — Pepys, 1663. The peruke was an Italian device, first worn at the French court, 1620; introduced into England, 1660. Louis XIV., to hide his shoulders, which were not matches, introduced the long wig, and then no gentleman of quality at court could wear his own hair. Wig′an. An open, canvas-like fabric, used as a stiffeni
rders to forward them to Washington; which order was subsequently revoked, and authority given to have them placed in the hands of the Governor to be preserved in the archives of the Commonwealth. It was then determined by Governor Andrew to have these colors received with all the honors which the cause they symbolized, and the battle-fields over which they had waved, made proper; and he selected the twenty-second day of December, the anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth in 1620, as the day on which the ceremony should take place. Major-General Couch was selected to command, and Brevet-Major-General Hinks was appointed chief of his staff. The day was a common New-England wintry day; the ground was covered with snow to the depth of about six inches. Early in the morning of the 22d, the veteran officers and men of our gallant commands assembled in Boston, and formed in military order. All were represented: and when placed in column of march with their old uniforms
James Redpath, The Public Life of Captain John Brown, Book 1: he keepeth the sheep. (search)
ted to encourage any young person to persevering effort: & that is the degree of success in accomplishing his objects which to a great extent marked the course of this boy throughout my entire acquaintance with him; notwithstanding his moderate capacity; & still more moderate acquirements. John was born May 9th 1800, at Torrington, Litchfield Co, Connecticut; of poor but respectable parents: a defendant on the side of his father of one of the company of the Mayflower who landed at Plymouth 1620. His mother was decended from a man who came at an early period to New England from Amsterdam, in Holland. Both his Father's & his Mother's Fathers served in the war of the revolution: His Father's Father; died in a barn at New York while in the service, in 1776. I cannot tell you of any thing in the first Four years of John's life worth mentioning save that at that early age he was tempted by Three large Brass Pins belonging to a girl who lived in the family & stole them. In this he was
James Redpath, The Public Life of Captain John Brown, Chapter 2: the father of the man. (search)
ted to encourage any young person to persevering effort: & that is the degree of success in accomplishing his objects which to a great extent marked the course of this boy throughout my entire acquaintance with him; notwithstanding his moderate capacity; & still more moderate acquirements. John was born May 9th 1800, at Torrington, Litchfield Co, Connecticut; of poor but respectable parents: a defendant on the side of his father of one of the company of the Mayflower who landed at Plymouth 1620. His mother was decended from a man who came at an early period to New England from Amsterdam, in Holland. Both his Father's & his Mother's Fathers served in the war of the revolution: His Father's Father; died in a barn at New York while in the service, in 1776. I cannot tell you of any thing in the first Four years of John's life worth mentioning save that at that early age he was tempted by Three large Brass Pins belonging to a girl who lived in the family & stole them. In this he was
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Book and heart: essays on literature and life, Chapter 22: more mingled races (search)
we see in New York city a group of stolid Russian Jews just landed, or notice a newly arrived party of gayly attired Italian women who are being conducted behind a shed by their friends that they may exchange their picturesque attire for second-hand American gowns, we are apt to be thankful that we are not such as they. Or when we hear of an arrival of Finnish stone-cutters at Gloucester, Massachusetts, or of Armenian iron-workers at Worcester, we reflect that the landing of the Pilgrims of 1620 was not just like theirs. But, after all, the Pilgrims landed; that is the essential point. They were not the indigenous race. They were poor; they were sometimes ignorant; some of their women could only make their mark instead of signing their names. At the best it is not very long since they landed, for what is two or three centuries in the history of the human race? Tried by the standard of ancient races, we are all new-comers together; we are still pilgrims and sojourners, as our fa
C. Edwards Lester, Life and public services of Charles Sumner: Born Jan. 6, 1811. Died March 11, 1874., Section Seventh: return to the Senate. (search)
ons, over his parental relations, over the employment of his time, over all his acquisitions, should be recognized, while no generous presumption inclines to Freedom, and the womb of the bondwoman can deliver only a slave. Xv. From its home in Africa, where it is sustained by immemorial usage, this Barbarism, thus derived and thus developed, traversed the ocean to American soil. It entered on board that fatal slave-ship, Built in the eclipse, and rigged with curses dark, which in 1620 landed its cruel cargo at Jamestown, in Virginia; and it has boldly taken its place in every succeeding slave-ship, from that early day till now,—helping to pack the human freight, regardless of human agony,—surviving the torments of the middle passage,—surviving its countless victims plunged beneath the waves; and it has left the slave-ship only to travel inseparable from the slave in his various doom, sanctioning by its barbarous code every outrage, whether of mayhem or robbery, lash or lus<
Xv. From its home in Africa, where it is sustained by immemorial usage, this Barbarism, thus derived and thus developed, traversed the ocean to American soil. It entered on board that fatal slave-ship, Built in the eclipse, and rigged with curses dark, which in 1620 landed its cruel cargo at Jamestown, in Virginia; and it has boldly taken its place in every succeeding slave-ship, from that early day till now,—helping to pack the human freight, regardless of human agony,—surviving the torments of the middle passage,—surviving its countless victims plunged beneath the waves; and it has left the slave-ship only to travel inseparable from the slave in his various doom, sanctioning by its barbarous code every outrage, whether of mayhem or robbery, lash or lust, and fastening itself upon his offspring to the remotest generation. Thus are barbarous prerogatives of barbarous half-naked African chiefs perpetuated in American Slave-Masters, while the Senator from Virginia [Mr. Mason]<
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