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Plato, Republic, Book 1, section 328c (search)
t and sat down beside him, for there were seats there disposed in a circle.For the seats compare Protagoras 317 D-E, Cicero Laelius 1. 2 “in hemicyclio sedentem.” As soon as he saw me Cephalus greeted me and said, “You are not a very frequentThe language recalls the Homeric formula,PA/ROS GE ME\N OU)/TI QAMI/ZEIS, Iliad xviii. 386, Odyssey v. 88, Jebb on O.C. 672. Cephalus' friendly urgency to Socrates is in the tone of Laches 181 C. visitor, Socrates. You don't often come down to the Peiraeus to see us. That is not right. For if I were still able to make the journey up to town easily there would be no need of your resorting hi
Plato, Republic, Book 2, section 363d (search)
they entertain the time henceforth with wine, as if the fairest meed of virtue were an everlasting drunk. And others extend still further the rewards of virtue from the gods. For they say that the children's childrenKern, ibid., quotes Servius adVirgil, Aeneid iii. 98 “et nati natorum” and opines that Homer took Iliad xx. 308 from Orpheus. of the pious and oath-keeping man and his race thereafter never fail. Such and such-like are their praises of justice. But the impious and the unjust they bury in mudCf. Zeller, Phil. d. Gr. i. pp. 56-57, 533 D, Phaedo 69 C, commentators on Aristophanes Frogs 146. in the house of Hades and compel them to fetch water in a sieve,Cf. my note on
Plato, Republic, Book 2, section 378d (search)
der, and we must compel the poets to keep close to this in their compositions. But Hera's fetteringsThe title of a play by Epicharmus. The hurling of Hephaestus, Iliad i. 586-594. by her son and the hurling out of heaven of Hephaestus by his father when he was trying to save his mother from a beating, and the battles of the gods Iliad xx. 1-74; xxi. 385-513. in Homer's verse are things that we must not admit into our city either wrought in allegoryU(PO/NOIA: the older word for allegory; Plutarch, De Aud. Poet. 19 E. For the allegorical interpretation of Homer in Plato's time cf. Jebb, Homer, p. 89, and Mrs. Anne Bates Hersman's Chicago
Plato, Republic, Book 2, section 379e (search)
n Homer, nor does Plato explicitly say that it is. Zeus is dispenser of war in Hom. Il. 4.84.“But as to the violation of the oaths Iliad 4.69 ff. and the truce by Pandarus, if anyone affirms it to have been brought about by the action of Athena and Zeus, we will not approve, nor that the strife and contenI\ KRI/SIN is used in Menexenus 237 C of the contest of the gods for Attica. Here it is generally taken of the Theomachy, Iliad xx. 1074, which begins with the summons of the gods to a council by Themis at the command of Zeus. It has also been understood, rather improbably, of the judgeme
Plato, Republic, Book 3, section 390e (search)
Rom. 233. Nor should we approve Achilles' attendant PhoenixSee his speech, Iliad ix. 515 ff. as speaking fairly when he counselled him if he received gifts for it to defend the Achaeans, but o lay aside his wrath; nor shall we think it proper nor admit that AchillesCf. Iliad xix. 278 ff. But Achilles in Homer is indifferent to the gifts. himself was so greedy as to accept gifts from . himself was so greedy as to accept gifts from Agamemnon and again to give up a dead body after receiving payment Iliad xxiv. 502, 555, 594. But in 560 he does not explicitly mention the ransom.
Plato, Republic, Book 3, section 391a (search)
refuse.” “It is not right,” he said, “to commend such conduct.” “But, for Homer's sake,” said I, “I hesitate to say that it is positively impiousCf. 368 B. to affirm such things of Achilles and to believe them when told by others; or again to believe that he said to Apollo Me thou hast baulked, Far-darter, the most pernicious of all gods, Mightily would I requite thee if only my hands had the power. Hom. Il. 22.15Professor Wilamowitz uses O)LOW/TATE to prove that Apollo was a god of destruction. But Menelaus says the same of Zeus in Iliad iii. 365. Cf. Class. Phil. vol. iv. (1909) p. 329.
Plato, Republic, Book 3, section 391b (search)
And how he was disobedient to the river,Scamander. Iliad 21.130-132. who was a god and was ready to fight with him, and again that he said of the locks of his hair, consecrated to her river Spercheius: ‘This let me give to take with him my hair to the hero,words are innocent enough. who was a dead body, and that he did so we must believe. And again the trailings Iliad xxiv. 14 ff. of Hector's body round the grave of Patroclus and the slaughter Iliad xxiv. 14 ff. of Hector's body round the grave of Patroclus and the slaughter Iliad xxiii. 175-176. of the living captives upon his pyre, all these we will affirm to be lies
Plato, Republic, Book 3, section 391c (search)
nor will we suffer our youth to believe that Achilles, the son of a goddess and of Peleus the most chasteProverbially. Cf. Pindar Nem. iv. 56, v. 26, Aristophanes Clouds 1063, and my note on Horace iii. 7. 17. of men, grandsonZeus, Aeacus, Peleus. For the education of Achilles by Cheiron Cf. Iliad xi. 832, Pindar Nem. iii., Euripides, I. A. 926-927, Plato, Hippias Minor 371 D. of Zeus, and himself bred under the care of the most sage Cheiron, was of so perturbed a spirit as to be affected with two contradictory maladies, the greed that becomes no free man and at the same time overweening arrogance towards gods and men.” “You are
Plato, Republic, Book 3, section 393d (search)
of the Achaeans but chiefly of the kings, had gone on speaking not as if made or being ChrysesCf. Hazlitt, Antony and Cleopatra: “Shakespeare does not stand reasoning on what his characters would do or say, but at once becomes them and speaks and acts for them.” but still as Homer, you are aware that it would not be imitation but narration, pure and simple. It would have been somewhat in this wise. I will state it without meter for I am not a poet:From here to 394 B, Plato gives a prose paraphrase of Iliad i. 12-42. Roger Ascham in his Schoolmaster quotes it as a perfect example of the best form of exercise for learning a language.
Plato, Republic, Book 3, section 405e (search)
did not find fault with the damsel who gave to the wounded EurypylusPlato is probably quoting from memory. In our text, Iliad xi. 624, Hecamede gives the draught to Machaon and Nestor as the Ion(538 B) correctly states. to drink a posset of Pramnian wine plentifully sprinkled with barley and gratings of cheese,
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