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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 41 41 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 15 15 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 4 4 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 1 1 Browse Search
Plato, Hippias Major, Hippias Minor, Ion, Menexenus, Cleitophon, Timaeus, Critias, Minos, Epinomis 1 1 Browse Search
Plato, Alcibiades 1, Alcibiades 2, Hipparchus, Lovers, Theages, Charmides, Laches, Lysis 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 479 BC or search for 479 BC in all documents.

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Aeimnestus (*)Aei/mnhstos), a Spartan, who killed Mardonius in the battle of Plataea, B. C. 479, and afterwards fell himself in the Messenian war. (Hdt. 9.64.) The Spartan who killed Mardonius, Plutarch (Plut. Arist. 19) calls Arimnestus (*)Ari/mnhstos
Amompha'retus (*)Amomfa/retos), commander of the Pitanata lochus in the Spartan army, who refused to march previously to the battle of Plataea (B. C. 479) to a part of the plain near the city, as Pausanias ordered, because he thought that such a movement was equivalent to a flight. He at length changed his mind when he had been left by the other part of the army, and set out to join Pausanias. He fell in the battle which followed, after distinguishing himself by his bravery, and was buried among the Irenes. (Hdt. 9.53-57, 71, 85; Plut. Arist. 17.) As to the meaning of the last word see Dict. of Ant. s. v. *Ei)/rhn, and Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, ii. p. 35
Aristode'mus (*)Aristo/dhmos), the Spartan, when the last battle at Thermopylae was expected, was lying with Eurytus sick at Alpeni; or as others related, they were together on an errand from the camp. Eurytus returned and fell among the Three Hundred. Aristodemus went home to Sparta. The Spartans made him a)/timos; "no man gave him light for his fire, no man spoke with him; he was called Aristodemus the coward" (o( tre/sas seems to have been the legal title; comp. Diod. 19.70). Stung with his treatment, next year at Plataea, B. C. 479, he fell in doing away his disgrace by the wildest feats of valour. The Spartans, however though they removed his a)timi/a, refused him a share in the honours they paid to his fellows, Poseidonius, Philocyon, and Amompharetus, though he had outdone them. (Hdt. 7.229-231 ; see Valckn. and Bähr, ad loc. ; 9.71; Suidas, s. v. *Lukou=rgos.) [A.H
ee months, and when at last the town seemed to be lost by the low waters of the sea, which enabled his troops to approach the walls from the sea-side, an almost wonderful event saved it, for the returning tide was higher than it had ever been before. The troops of Artabazus were partly overwhelmed by the waters and partly cut down by a sally of the Potidaeans. He now withdrew with the remnants of his army to Thessaly, to join Mardonius. (8.126-130.) Shortly before the battle of Plataeae, B. C. 479, Artabazus dissuaded Mardonius from entering on an engagement with the Greeks, and urged him to lead his army to Thebes in order to obtain provisions for the men and the cattle; for he entertained the conviction that the mere presence of the Persians would soon compel the Greeks to surrender. (9.41.) His counsel had no effect, and as soon as he perceived the defeat of the Persians at Plataeae, he fled with forty thousand men through Phocis, Thessaly, Macedonia, and Thrace, to Byzantium, an
r of the town of Sestus and its territory on the Hellespont, where he ruled as an arbitrary and reckless tyrant. When Xerxes passed through Sestus, Artayctes induced the king by fraud to give him the tomb and sacred land of the hero Protesilaus, which existed at Elaeus near Sestus; he then pillaged the tomb, and made profane use of the sacred land. This sacrilegious act was not forgiven him by the Greeks. He did not expect to see an enemy at such a distance from Athens; when, therefore, in B. C. 479, Xanthippus appeared in the Hellespont with a fleet, Artayctes was not prepared for a siege. However the town was strongly fortified and able to resist a besieging army. Xanthippus continued his siege during the whole winter, but on the approach of spring the famine in the town became insupportable; and Artayctes and Oeobazus, a Persian of high rank, succeeded in making their escape through the lines of the besiegers. As soon as the Greek inhabitants of Sestus heard of the flight of their
Artayntes (*)Artau+/nths), one of the generals in the army of Xerxes. When Xerxes had returned to Asia after the battle of Salamis, Artayntes, Ithamitres, and some other generals, sailed to Samos in order to watch the lonians, and in the hope that the land-force under Mardonius in northern Greece might still be successful. But after the battles of Plataeae and Mycale, in B. C. 479, Artayntes and Ithamitres took to flight. While Artayntes was passing through Asia, he was met by Masistes, the brother of Xerxes, who censured him severely for his cowardly flight. Artayntes, enraged, drew his sword and would have killed Masistes, had he not been saved by Xeinagoras, a Greek, who seized Artayntes at the moment and threw him on the ground, for which act he was liberally rewarded. (Herod, 8.130, 9.102, 107.) [L.
Athena'goras (*)Aqhnago/ras). 1. A Samian, the son of Archestratides, was one of the ambassadors sent by the Samians to Leotychides shortly before the battle of Mycale, B. C. 479. (Hdt. 9.90
Attagi'nus (*)Attagi=nos), the son of Phrynon, one of the leading men in Thebes, betrayed Thebes to Xerxes on his invasion of Greece (Paus. 7.10.1), and took an active part in favour of the Persians. He invited Mardonius and fifty of the noblest Persians in his army to a splendid banquet at Thebes, shortly before the battle of Plataea, B. C. 479. After the battle, the Greeks marched against Thebes, and required Attaginus, with the other partisans of the Median party, to be delivered up to them. This was at first refused; but, after the city had been besieged for twenty days, his fellow-citizens determined to comply with the demands of the Greeks. Attaginus made his escape, but his family were handed over to Pausanias, who dismissed them without injury. (Hdt. 9.15, 86, 88; Athen. 4.148e
Calli'crates (*Kallikra/ths) historical. 1. A Spartan, is mentioned by Herodotus as the finest and handsomest man of all the Greeks of his time. He was slain by an arrow just before the armies engaged at Plataea (B. C. 479), and while the Greeks were waiting till the signs from the sacrifices should be favourable. (Hdt. 9.72.) In Hdt. 9.85, his name occurs among the i)re/nes who were buried separately from the rest of the Spartans and from the Helots. The word i)re/nes, however, can hardly be used here in its ordinary meaning of "youths," but has probably its original signification of "commanders." (See Müller, Dor. ii. p. 315; Thirlwall's Greece, ii. p. 350, not
to be, and indeed is, impossible. The fact is, that there were two artists of the name of Canachus, both of Sicyon, and probably grandfather and grandson. This was first suggested by Schorn (Ueb. d. Stud. d. Griech. Künstler, p. 199) and adopted by Thiersch (Epoch. Anm. pp. 38-44), K. O. Müller, and Böckh. The work which must have been finished B. C. 480, was a colossal statue of Apollo Philesius at Miletus, this statue having been carried to Ecbatana by Xerxes after his defeat in Greece, B. C. 479. Müller (Kunstblatt, 1821, N. 16) thinks, that this statue cannot have been executed before B. C. 494, at which time Miletus was destroyed and burnt by Dareius; but Thiersch (l.c.) shews that the colossus might very well have escaped the general ruin, and therefore needs not have been placed there after the destruction of the city. Finding that all indications point to the interval between O1. 60 and 68 (B. C. 540-508), he has given these 32 years as the time during which Canachus flourish
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