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came the Leflores, known as the first and second French camps. The fourth was that of a half-breed Chickasaw, at the crossing of the Tennessee River. When the traveller could not reach the house at which he had intended to stop, he found it entirely safe to sleep, wrapped in blankets, in the open air. It was the boast of the Choctaws that they had never shed the blood of a white man, and, as a proof of their friendship, they furnished a considerable contingent to the war against the Creek Indians, who were allies of the British. The party with which I was sent to Kentucky consisted of Major Hinds (who had command of the famous battalion of Mississippi dragoons at the battle of New Orleans), his wife, his sister-in-law, a niece, a maid-servant, and his son Howell, who was near my own age, and, like myself, mounted on a pony. A servant had a sumpter mule with some supplies, besides bed and blankets for camping out. The journey to Kentucky occupied several weeks. When we re
rn limit of the Illinois tribe. It was a starting-point for their raids against the Iroquois who occupied the land around Chicago. On Jeffrey's map of 1776, a line is drawn from Prairie du Chien to Omaha, and inscribed French route to western Indians. In the Colonial records of New York, p. 621, it is mentioned as one of the three great routes to the Mississippi. Prairie du Chien, as early as 1766, was described as a great mart, where tribes from the most remote branches of the Mississippiirsty Indian. An eagle's feather was added to a warrior's head-dress. for each scalp he took. Once, while busy cutting timber on the banks, the alarm was given, and the party barely escaped being seen by a fleet of canoes which passed, full of Indians, in war-paint, singing their war-songs. One canoe landed, and a warrior reconnoitred within twelve feet of the place in which Lieutenant Davis lay concealed. Amidst constantly recurring alarms, with force inadequate to their defence, sleeping
ee months. The intermediate country in many portions was unexplored by white men, and was generally occupied by friendly Indians; but intercourse with these was rendered doubtful by the secret treaties of amity between the different Nations. The acis mouth by the handfuls, amidst the laughter of the spectators. He was not more respectful to the dreams of his fellow Indians. A hunter who imagined himself commanded by the Great Spirit to offer up the proceeds of his autumn hunting upon a cerous character. Death rode on the croup with every man who left the fortified posts, so that with the excitement about Indians, the daily round of duties, and such social pleasures as could be interspersed among them, Lieutenant Davis passed the tlead mines. From Fort Winnebago he went out on several expeditions against the Pawnees, Comanches, and other hostile Indians. The early history of the settlement of the Western country being almost unwritten, a great interest has been awaken
nt with age, who remembered the friendly young lieutenant, and did not know he was no longer there, a year or more after he had left the post, travelled a long distance at the risk of her life, and warned his successor of a contemplated attack by the hostile Indians when the grass should be long enough to hide a man. Her advice was disregarded and a massacre was the consequence. Lieutenant Davis's labors were arduous, and during this time he was closely encompassed by bands of hostile Indians. The country was very wild; and he was indefatigable in his energetic pursuit of his duty. The weather was intensely cold, and he was often wet to the skin for hours. The exposure brought on pneumonia, and he lay for many months at this isolated place, directing, as best he could, the operations of the men from his bed. He became so emaciated that his servant, James Pemberton, used to lift him like a child from the bed to the window. During this period James carried the arms, the money,
them comfortable that the wilds could afford. The voyageurs, occupied in these cares, contentedly ate their bread and maple syrup, chewed their kinni-kinnic, and were happy. There were men who ran the mails, generally Mitiffs, or half-breed Indians, and Mr. Davis mentioned one who ran forty miles in a day, with a heavy sack of mail. He did it by resting five minutes at every five miles. Chippewa was the court language of the Indian world, and these voyageurs, with very few exceptions,that time were not less a noteworthy and picturesque population than the Indians. There was an old lady to whom Lieutenant Davis owed many kindnesses, who was so fearless, that, armed only with an axe, she once kept at bay a party of half-drunk Indians, but she had a great horror of ghosts. Once, in one of his many reconnaissances, he had been detained until late one night, and had taken shelter in a cave, which had been a sepulchre where he had slept peacefully until morning. On returning h
had dwindled to thirty or forty. The savagery of these tribes is almost incredible now; among the Miamies were cannibal Indians, who fed upon their prisoners when they did not burn them at the stake. The Sacs and Foxes held their own territory,sides, but inured to hardship and danger, the pioneers pressed forward, their feet red with the blood of both whites and Indians, and acquired acre by acre the lovely country east of the Mississippi. The American Fur Company had their principal ompany of infantry, about fifty strong, made preparation to defend the place. He had not long to wait. A large body of Indians, knowing the small size of the garrison, came, confidently counting on its capture; but, as it is a rule in their warfarver, after the interpreter had explained for a quarter of an hour, they again re-entered the lodge, but the officers and Indians, throughout the conference, held their arms ready for use. Such a condition of things one would imagine might be product
Chapter 13: at Lexington and Galena. Galena lead mines.-recruiting service.-cholera in Lexington.-return to Fort Crawford.-Fort Gibson.- Adventure with Indians.--Washington Irving and Eleazur Williams.-New regiment created.-promotion.--Smith T. After the Black Hawk War closed in 1831 Lieutenant Davis was sent up to Galena on a tour of inspection to the lead mines, where he remained long enough personally to know some of the miners, and they had so many manly qualities that his relations with them were very kind, and his appreciation of them won their regard. In the autumn of 1832, Lieutenant Davis was sent on recruiting service, and went to Louisville and Lexington, Ky. The cholera broke out while he was at the latter place, and people fled from it in numbers. True to his sense of duty, and fearless in the pursuit of it, he remained at his post, took care of his recruits, attended to their diet, and, as ever, did his best regardless of consequences. It was ther
f the heathen, and with their offspring to descend by inheritance; thus, in the main particulars, being identical with the institution as it exists among us. It was foretold of the sons of Noah that Japheth should be greatly extended, that he should dwell in the tents of Shem, and Canaan should be his servant. Wonderfully has the prophecy been fulfilled; and here, in our own country, is the most striking example. When the Spaniards discovered America, they found it in possession of the Indians. Many tribes were enslaved, but the sons of Shem were not doomed to bondage. They were restless, discontented, and were liberated, because they were unprofitable. Their places were supplied by the sons of Ham, brought across the broad Atlantic for this purpose. They came to their destiny and were useful and contented. Over the greater part of the continent, Japheth now sits in the tents of Shem and in extensive regions Canaan is his servant. Let those who possess the best opportu
lved a possibility of further collisions with the Indians; for, as our population pressed westward from the Missouri, it forced the savage tribes into narrower limits and an unproductive region, which not only enabled bands hitherto separate to combine for war, but provoked it by diminishing their ability to live by the precarious products of the chase. Recent experience of Indian war showed that an increase in our army would be a measure of economy. The cost of the war with the Sac and Fox Indians, in 1832, amounted to more than three millions of dollars; the definite appropriations for the suppression of Indian hostilities, from 1836 to 1841, inclusive, amounted to more than eighteen millions of dollars. Within the last few years large appropriations had been made for the same object in Texas, New Mexico, Utah, California, and Oregon. The aggregate of such appropriations for the last twenty-two years, independent of the regular army, was estimated at more than thirty millions of
s-and none more worthy will ever again bear that honored name. During Mr. Davis's two months confinement to the dark room, men of all politics came to him with a personal affection most charming. Colonel Edwin V. Sumner, a stout-hearted, tender preux chevalier of the old regime, who, when promotion was to have been expected at Secretary Davis's hands, never made any pretence of leaning toward Southern opinions, would sit in almost total darkness and talk army matters, explorations, Indians, anything by which he thought he could lighten the tedium of these gloomy hours-and often holding Mr. Davis's hand with the tenderness of a woman. The brave old Colonel came to Washington intent upon having satisfaction from General Harney, for a discourtesy he thought had been done to him, .and asked Colonel Hardie to be his friend in the altercation; and in the course of his conversation with Mr. Davis, which was carried on through me, my husband inquired, You do not want to fight, of co