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Curfew Bell, The name applied to a bell signal introduced in England in 1068. It was rung at 8 P. M., and all fires and candles were to be immediately extinguished. The curfew was abolished in 1100, so far as its original purpose was concerned. In the United States there has been quite an agitation within the last few years for the enactment of laws providing for the ringing of bells at 9 P. M., as a signal for all youth of a specified age playing or wandering in the streets to return immediately to their homes. In several States laws for this purpose have already been enacted, and the name of curfew bell has been popularly given to the signal rung out on a church or fire bell.
Waldenses (also called Valdenses, Vallenses, and Vaudois), a sect inhabiting the Cottian Alps, derive their name, according to some authors, from Peter de Waldo, of Lyons (1170). They were known, however, as early as 1100, their confession of faith published 1120. Their doctrine condemned by the council of Lateran, 1179. They had a translation of the Bible, and allied themselves to the Albigenses, whose persecution led to the establishment of the holy office or inquisition. The Waldenses settled in the valleys of Piedmont about 1375, but were frequently dreadfully persecuted, notably 1545-46, 1560, 1655-56, when Oliver Cromwell, by threats, obtained some degree of toleration for them; again in 1663-64 and 1686. They were permitted to have a church at Turin, December, 1853. In March, 1868, it was stated that there were in Italy twenty-eight ordained Waldensian ministers and thirty other teachers. Early in 1893 a delegation was sent to the United States to investigate the adv