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e command of the Khalif Al Maimoun, between 813 and 833 A. D. Charts were introduced into the marine service by Henry, son of John I. of Portugal, about A. D. 1400; brought to England by Bartholomew Colon in 1489. Mercator's chart is a projection of the surface of the earth in the plane, with the meridians parallel to each other, the degrees of longitude all equal, and the degrees of latitude increasing in a corresponding ratio towards the poles. It was introduced by Gerald Mercator in 1556. The principle of its construction had, however, been previously explained by Edward Wright. The first computation of longitude from the meridian of Greenwich Observatory was in 1679. The first magnetic chart was constructed by Dr. Halley, in 1701. It was limited to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Char-tom′e-ter. An instrument for measuring maps and charts. Chase. 1. (Printing.) A rectangular iron frame (a, Fig. 1255) which receives the matter from a galley, and in whi
der husband laments that he could not celebrate the day of his wife's death by a sanguinary gladiatorial fight at Verona, because contrary winds detained in port the panthers which had been bought in Africa. To come down to a later date, ivory chairs and furniture were among the spoils of Seringapatam when Tippoo yielded up the ghost, and the government of Mysore. The Elephant's tower at Futtehpoor Sikra, a favorite residence of Akbar, the most illustrious Asiatic ruler of modern times (1556-1605), is ninety feet high, and is studded with elephants' tusks from top to bottom. It is conjectured to have been erected over the remains of a favorite elephant. This Akbar (very great), properly Jelal-ed-din Mohammed, was truly royal, and kept house on a very extended scale. Bayard Taylor gives a good account of Futtehpoor, a red sandstone city, deserted but not destroyed. Akbar had a fancy for chess-playing within a checkered court-yard of his palace, with beardless epicenes and troo
olumbus, and yet the Queen of the Antilles, lies north and south, parallel with the coveted island of Zipango (Japan), which so persistently eluded the search of the man of Genoa, who tried to push his caravel through a continent. Sea-charts were brought to England, 1489, by Bartholomew Columbus, to illustrate his brother's views respecting a western continent. The first tolerably accurate map of England was made by George Lilly, who died 1559. Gerard Mercator published his Atlas in 1556. In this, as in the modern maps on the Mercator projection, the meridians and parallels are straight lines and cut each other at right angles. The distance between the parallels is increased with the latitude, so as to be proportionate to the actual distance of the meridians apart. The principles on which this projection is founded were first explained by Edward Wright, an Englishman. It is universally employed in nautical charts. My Lord Barkeley wanting some maps, and Sir W. Co
ly as the fourth century in Germany, on the river Roer. Stone, marble, and grain mills had been used many centuries previously in Pontus, Caria, and in Rome. Sawing-table. Saw-mills were driven by water at Augsburg in 1322. Indeed, a saw-mill with a complete selfaction and driven by a water-wheel is found in a Ms. of the thirteenth century, now in Paris. Saw-mills were erected by the Spaniards in the island of Madeira in 1420. Erected in Breslau, 1427; in Norway, 1520; in Rome, 1556. Saw-mills driven by water afterward became common in Europe. In the year 1555, the Bishop of Ely, ambassador from Mary Queen of England to the court of Rome, visited a saw-mill in the vicinity of Lyons, which he thus describes: — The saw-mill is driven with an upright wheel, and the water that maketh it go is gathered whole into a narrow trough, which delivereth the same water to the wheels. This wheel bath a piece of timber put to the axle-tree end, like the handle of a broch, an