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Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 56 56 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 49 49 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 16 16 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 12 12 Browse Search
HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF MEDFORD, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT, IN 1630, TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1855. (ed. Charles Brooks) 11 11 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 5 5 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 3, 15th edition. 5 5 Browse Search
Charles A. Nelson , A. M., Waltham, past, present and its industries, with an historical sketch of Watertown from its settlement in 1630 to the incorporation of Waltham, January 15, 1739. 3 3 Browse Search
the Rev. W. Turner , Jun. , MA., Lives of the eminent Unitarians 2 2 Browse Search
The Cambridge of eighteen hundred and ninety-six: a picture of the city and its industries fifty years after its incorporation (ed. Arthur Gilman) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1747 AD or search for 1747 AD in all documents.

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rated in a vacuum-pan. See condenser; evaporator; vacuum-pan; sugar-machinery; diffusion apparatus. Maceration and desiccation have each been tried with some degree of success. The first notice we find of the making of beet-root sugar was in 1747. Achard's (French) process made the manufacture a success in 1799. Napoleon encouraged it when the English cruisers destroyed the commerce of France, and cut her off from her sugar-producing colonies. It is now being tried in Illinois,each side of the bottle, causing a rather unsightly appearance. See glass. Glass bottles were known to the Romans of the Empire, and are found in Pompeii. A glass bottle with a capacity of 112 gallons was blown at Leith, in Scotland, about 1747. Fig. 825 shows an earthen bottle from Peru, with two faces. The sectional view shows the shape of the neck and handle. Earthenware bottles. Fig. 826 shows a number of ancient bottles. a b c are from Thebes. d is Etruscan. e is
e, tower, steeple, or mast, to the ground, or, better still, a ground-plate or system of buried iron pipes. Gray and Wheler, in 1720-1736, made experiments to ascertain the distance through which electric force could be transmitted, using insulated metals. Gray, in 1729, discovered the properties of electric conductors. He found that the attraction and repulsion which appear in electric bodies are exhibited also by other bodies in contact with the electric. —Whewell. Dr. Watson, in 1747, passed transmitted electricity through 2,800 feet of wire and 8,000 feet of water, using the earth circuit. Benjamin Franklin, in 1748, performed his experiments on the banks of the Schuylkill, concluded by a picnic, when spirits were fired by an electric spark sent through the river, and a turkey was killed by the electric shock, and roasted by the electric jack, before a fire kindled by the electrified bottle. The latter was the Leyden jar, the invention of Muschenbroek and Kleist, t
through a circle of 180 men of the French guards, and along a line of men and wires 900 toises in length, while Watson in England ascertained that the transmission of the shock through 12,000 feet of wire was sensibly instantaneous. Franklin in 1747 pointed out the circumstances on which the action of the Leyden jar depends, showing that the inside is positively and the outside negatively electrified, and that the shock is produced by the restoration of the equilibrium when communication is etched to the point from whence no signal has been sent. E-lec′tro-medi-cal Appa-ra′tus. An instrument for the treatment of diseases by electro-magnetism. Great success in this line was announced by Johannes Francisco Pavate, at Venice, in 1747. The details of the apparatus employed by him are not known. Electro-Medical apparatus. From that time to the present the treatment of diseases by electrical appliances has undergone its vicissitudes in public favor, becoming notably promi
oods had by this time become thinned out, so that the use of wood for iron smelting had been forbidden by act of Parliament in 1581, within twenty-two miles of the metropolis, or fourteen miles of the Thames, and eventually was forbidden altogether. The art of making iron with pit-coal, and of casting articles of iron, was revived by Abraham Darby, of Colebrook dale, about 1713, and was perseveringly followed, although it was but little noised abroad. In the Philosophical Transactions for 1747 it is referred to as a curiosity. Certain parties had attempted to smelt iron in clay pots exposed in a furnace, resembling that used for glass, to the flame of a pit-coal fire, expecting to procure the iron by tapping the pots. The scheme, which might have answered with a more tractable material, failed in the case of the iron ore. Tinning of iron was introduced from Bohemia in 1681. The extension of the iron manufacture dates from the introduction of the steam-engine, which increa
ridges (a) of Brussels were balanced by weights attached to chains passing over standards that stood immediately over the walls of the canal, and were braced and stayed by timbers and iron ties. The weight of the draws was borne by struts beneath, which were footed in set-offs in the faces of the masonry, and rested at their upper ends against jogs beneath the sill-timbers of the bridge. Perronet, the great French engineer, 1708 – 94, was the chief engineer of the Ponts et Chaussecs from 1747, and did more for the science of bridge-building than any of his contemporaries. He contrived a drawbridge (b) which had a short middle draw to allow the masts of vessels to pass when the headway beneath the bridge was sufficient for the hulls of the vessels. This middle section is hinged to one portion of the bridge and lifted by a chain and winch. Lifting-bridges. Lift′ing-gear. (Steam-engine.) The apparatus for lifting a safety-valve from within a boiler. It consists of le<
. Mu′sic-writ′er. Several contrivances were suggested or made during the last century for writing extempore voluntaries or other pieces of music, as far as any master shall be able to play them upon the organ, harpsichord, etc. (Phil. Tran., 1747.) Creed invented a machine for this purpose in England in 1747; Hennersdorf of Berlin, one in the following year. John Freke in England, Unger and Hohlfield in Prussia, worked at the idea. Unger formed a part of the harpsichord. The device of H1747; Hennersdorf of Berlin, one in the following year. John Freke in England, Unger and Hohlfield in Prussia, worked at the idea. Unger formed a part of the harpsichord. The device of Hohlfield was attachable to any instrument. Descriptions were transmitted to the Academy of Berlin in 1752, and published in Brunswick in 1774. Mus′ket. (Fire-arms.) The fire-arm of the infantry soldier. It superseded the arquebus, on which it was an improvement. Formerly, smoothbore and muzzle-loading, modern progress has improved it into the rifled breech-loader of the present. See fire-arms. Mus′ket-oon. A short musket used by cavalry and artillery previous to the introdu
gative may be coke, carbon, silver, platinum, or copper, and this pole is called the cathode. The following is the order of the metals, the upper being the most positive:— Zinc.Bismuth. Cadmium.Nickel. Tin.Silver. Iron.Antimony. LeadGold Copper.Platinum. b. (Vitreous Electricity.) According to Dr. Franklin's theory and nomenclature, that which a body contains above its natural quantity. The terms positive and negative, as applied in electric science, were used by Franklin in 1747; the terms vitreous and resinous electricity, by Dufay, in 1734-37. 2. (Photography.) A photographic print in which the lights and shades have their natural relation, as distinguished from a negative, in which they are reversed. Pos′i-tive eye-piece. A combination of lenses at the eye end of a telescope or microscope, consisting of two plano-convex lenses in which the convex sides of the glasses are turned toward each other. See negative eye-piece. Its principal use is in th
r. The art of making iron with pit-coal and of casting articles of iron was revived by Abraham Darby, of Colebrookdale, about 1713, and was perseveringly followed, although it was but little noised abroad. In the Philosophical Transactions for 1747 it is referred to as a curiosity. See casting, p. 449. The extension of the iron manufacture dates from the introduction of the steam-engine, which increased the power of the blast; and the blowing engines, driven by manual, horse, or ox poweratter, and the substances which give to sirup its peculiar agreeable flavor, but whose exact nature is not known. Beet-Root Sugar. Oliver de Serres, 1605, suggested the use of beets for making sugar. Margraff first produced sugar from beets in 1747; Achard, in 1799. Bonaparte encouraged it, as his connections with the West Indies were very precarious, and were likely to become more so. 60,000 tons of beet-root sugar are now produced annually in France. Large quantities are also made in Nor