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a, a volcanic earth obtained near Baiae, in Italy. See pozzuolana. b. Hydraulic mortar or cement is made from argillaceous limestones, the presence of the alumina conferring the power of hardening under water. Hydraulic limes were known to and understood by the Romans. Attention was directed to the subject by Smeaton, when he experimented for a cement capable of hardening under water, in order to form his foundation courses for the Eddystone lighthouse. c. The French cement made at Mendon, near Paris, is made of chalk 4 parts, clay 1 part, ground in water, settled, molded, dried, and calcined. d. The Portland cement of England is made of chalk and clay from the valley of the Medway. The septaria and lias rocks also yield an hydraulic cement. Artificial pozzuolana is also made from lime and clay. e. Gad's patent (English); dried clay in powder, 3; oxide of iron, 1. Make into a paste with boiled oil. Will harden under water. f. Mix clay, broken pottery, flint and